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Friday, July 31, 2009

TAHARAH: Wudhu as the prophet Muhammad (sallalahu ‘alayhi wasallam) taught

This is a video I found in the net and it is one of the closest (on video) to how the prophet performed his ablution (wudhu).

I have translated what was explained in the video, and also added some explanatory footnotes.

IMPORTANT NOTE: My previous article stressed the importance of not being wasteful. This video is the illustration of how it was done. Although he illustrates it using a vessel, one could still be thrift when performing ablution at a water pipe. Close the pipe every time you get enough water in your palm. It's not difficult at all, because I have been practising this for some time!

Watch the video:

All praises due to Allah, and peace and blessings upon the one who was sent as a Mercy to all mankind, our master and prophet Muhammad, and also on his family, companions and whoever follows his guidance and practice his sunnah till the Day of Judgement. Wudhu as the prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) taught.

Firstly, the prophet used to perform wudhu with a mudd and performed the ghusl (bath) with a saa’. [1] This vessel is close to a mudd. A mudd, linguistically, is one fill of the palms. A saa’ is the like of this, multiplied by four. And the prophet used to use this amount of water (as explained) in wudhu and ghusl.

In the hadith of Uthman Ibn Affan in describing the wudhu[2] of the prophet mentioned that he would have a vessel the size of a mudd, so he poured on his hands and washed it 3 times. And this washing of two hands to the wrists is wajib when one wakes up from sleep because the prophet prohibited that one dips his hand into the vessel (water after sleep except after washing them 3 times.[3] And it is recommended to wash his hands to the wrists first before every wudhu 3 times.

He said: Then he dips his (right) hand into the water and takes a handful (of water) and performed with it (the handful of water) the madhmadhah (rinsing the mouth) and istinshaq (sniffing up the nose). He takes half for the mouth and the other half for istinshaq (sniffing water up the nose)[4].

Al-Istinshaq is putting water into the nose and istinthar is blowing water out of nose. And he used to do istinshaq with his right hand and istinthar with his left hand.[5] The second handful………..the third handful.

These madhmadhah and istinshaq, in the correct opinion, are wajib, enters into the statement of Allah:

O you who believe, when you intend to offer salat then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows..
[al-Maa’idah: 6]

This mouth, performing madhmadhah, and nose is included in the meaning of the word (in this verse) ‘face’.

He said: then he took a handful and washed his face with it. And he washed his face 3 times. Washing of the face… and it is fard.

Then he washed his hands to the elbows, starting with the right hand. Mirfaq (elbow) is the joint between the upper and lower arm. Allah’s statement:

O you who believe, when you intend to offer salat then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows..
 [al-Maa’idah: 6]

And the correct opinion is the elbows are included in the washing of hands so it is wajib to wash them because they are included. Then he took 3 handfuls to wash his left hand, likewise.

Then he wiped his head one time, moving the hands back and then forward. He starts with the front of the head towards the neck and then returns them to spot where he started[6], and then wiped both his ears: he inserted his pointing fingers into his ears and wiped the outer lobs with his thumbs. And he wiped only one time. I wiped twice just to demonstrate the wiping that it starts from the front bringing the hands to towards the nape of the neck and then push them back to where it started and wiped his ears.[7]

Then he washed his right feet, to his ankle, 3 times. Likewise he washed his left feet, also 3 times, to his ankle. Then he said : [The two du’a that appears below] Then he (sallallaahu 'alahi wa sallam) said:

Whoever makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:

 أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ
 (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger)

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنْ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ
(O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents to You and of those who purify themselves.)

except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him - so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [8]

So wudhu is a great act of worship, and that it is the condition of salat, as we have mentioned in teaching description of the prophet’s prayer, that it is a condition for the correctness of salat, due to the statement of Allah:

O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles.”

We ask Allah that He makes us from among the repentant and those who purifier themselves.

Footnotes: [1] Abu Bakr (radhialllahu ‘anhu) said: Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wassalam) used to bathe with a saa’ (of water) and performed wudhu with a mudd (of water). [al-Bukhaaree (no. 492)]
[2] The Shaikh is referring to the hadith: Narrated Humran (the slave of 'Uthman) I saw 'Uthman bin 'Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice. Then he said, "Allah's Apostle said 'If anyone Performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-rak'at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.' " After performing the ablution 'Uthman said, "I am going to tell you a Hadith which I would not have told you, had I not been compelled by a certain Holy Verse (the sub narrator 'Urwa said: This verse is: "Verily, those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance which we have sent down..." (2:159). I heard the Prophet saying, 'If a man performs ablution perfectly and then offers the compulsory congregational prayer, Allah will forgive his sins committed between that (prayer) and the (next) prayer till he offers it. [al-Bukhaaree]
[3] Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said: When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn't report "three times"].
[4] 'Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
[5] 'Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards 'Alee - as he made wudoo - and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand - he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) - then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].
[6] ‘Amr ibn Abi al-Hasan asked ‘Abdullah ibn Zaid about the wudhu of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) so he asked for a tumbler…then he passed his (wet) hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa (beginning from the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck and then brought them to the front again from where he had started) one time, then he washed his feet. [al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
[7] From 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr - about the way of performing wudoo - he said: Then he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa'ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah]
[8] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no.55), declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee. Also reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), an-Nasaa'ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470) without the supplication:
 اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنْ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ.

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Shirk (syirik) - Polytheism! The Worst Form of Injustice

A "DATUK" named after a malay (died or DOB in 1922(!)): "DATO SERI IZAM", who is supposedly a MALAY, MUSLIM. And to help "STRENGTHEN" this malay DEITY (Object of worship), he was given a KOPIAH!! Subhanallah!!!

And the guy who takes care of this "DATUK" actually asked for several strands of my beard to be given to "DATO SERI IZAM"!! Of course, I said: NO! Subhanallah!!

Why? Because Muslims must NEVER help in any way in this regard!

Some muslim technicians asked me if they can install some wirings and lightings for one of the "DATUK" at a factory, since the job has been assigned to them. I told them NEVER to be involved! Tell their boss to approach non-muslims!

Islam is clear! Allah said in the Quran:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

"And help one another in birr (goodness) and taqwa (piety) and DO NOT HELP ONE ANOTHER IN SINS AND TRANSGRESSION."

وَإِذَا رَأَى الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا شُرَكَاءَهُمْ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا هَؤُلَاءِ شُرَكَاؤُنَا الَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِكَ فَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلَ إِنَّكُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

"And when those who associated partners with Allah see their partners (those whom they used to worship in this world) they will say: "Our Lord! These are our partners whom we used to call upon besides you.'' But they will throw their statements back at them (saying): "You are indeed liars!''

وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَن لاَّ يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَآئِهِمْ غَـفِلُونَ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَـفِرِينَ

"And who is more astray than one who calls upon others besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their invocations to them And when the people are gathered (on the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship"


Directing any form of worship, even supplication (do'a) towards any of the creation, whether dead or alive, is a grave injustice!

Monday, July 27, 2009

Don't be wasteful!! (Jangan membazir!!)

The prophet taught the muslims to be economical in the use of water for ablution (wudhu), and not to be wasteful. It is important to note that the prophet wanted the muslims to have the attitude of avoiding wastefullness, even when the resources seem abundant.

روى ابن ماجه أن النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- مر بسعد وهو يتوضأ فقال: ما هذا السرف ؟ فقال: أفي الوضوء إسراف؟ قال نعم، وإن كنت على نهر جار

Ibn Majah reported that the prophet (SAW) passed by Sa'd who was performing his ablution, so he (SAW) said: "What's this wastefulness?" So he replied: "Is there wastefulness in performing ablution?" The prophet replied: "Yes, even if you are on a flowing river."
[Hasan - see as-Saheehah (no. 3292)]

Malay translation: Ibn Majah meriwayatkan bahawa nabi (SAW) lalu ketika Sa'd sedang mengambil wudhu, seraya bersabda (SAW): "Mengapa pembaziran sebegini?" Jawab (Sa'd): "Adakah di dalam berwudhu pun ada pembaziran?" Jawab nabi (SAW): "Ya, walaupun kamu berada di sungai yang mengalir."

And there are many narrations that detail how much water he (SAW) used when performing ablution. An example is:

عن أنس -رضي الله عنه- قال: كان النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يغتسل بالصاع إلى خمسة أمداد ويتوضأ بالمد متفق عليه

On the authority of Anas (RA) who said: The prophet (SAW) used to bathe using a Saa' (of water) to about 5 Mudd (of water), and he used to perform ablution with a Mudd (of water).
[Agreed upon]

Malay translation: Daripada Anas (RA) dia berkata: Nabi (SAW) biasa mandi dengan sebanyak satu Saa' (air) sehinggalah 5 Mudd (air), and beliau mengambil wudhu dengan satu Mudd (air).

A Saa' is equivalent to four Mudd.
A Mudd is one fill of the palms (hands)

Malay translation:
Satu Saa' bersamaan dengan empat Mudd
Satu Mudd adalah tadahan kedua-dua telapak tangan yang penuh

We should all change our attitudes towards being more economical and thrift in our use of natural resources. Do you know how much resources are used to supply clean water for public use in homes, offices, etc.? And to let water go to waste in abundance, especially when performing wudhu is disgraceful. We can't say we are better than the prophet by using more water for ablution. So, stick to the Sunnah, follow the prophet's example.

Change our attitude... Do not waste!

Visit the following link for a glimpse of how much resources goes into getting clean water to the general masses:

Waste no more...!!

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

SOLAT: Janganlah tinggal solat!..

Tahukah kamu apa hukuman seorang yang meninggalkan solat, menurut jumhur ulama? Tahukah kamu dosa meninggalkan solat adalah lebih besar daripada dosa minum arak dan makan daging babi?

Untuk menimbulkan kesedaran betapa pentingnya solat di dalam Islam, saya kemukakan penjelasan berikut: 1) Para ulama Islam, termasuk Imam-Imam Empat Mazhab, bersepakat bahawa sesiapa yang MENGINGKARI KEWAJIPAN solat ke atas setiap muslim aqil baligh, maka dia telah murtad, kafir!

2) Para ulama Islam, termasuk Imam-Imam Empat Mazhab, berselisih pendapat mengenai seorang muslim yang meninggalkan solat kerana MALAS:

a. Kafir, Murtad – Pendapat Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (Mazhab Hanbali), juga pendapat para sahabat nabi. Antara dalil mereka: Sabda nabi:
“Perjanjian (yang membezakan) kita dan mereka (orang-orang musyrikin) adalah solat, sesiapa meninggalkannya maka dia telah kafir.”
[Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Daud dll]

Seorang tabi’in bernama Abdullah bin Syaqiq rahimahullahu pula berkata: “Adalah para sahabat Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam tidak memandang adanya sesuatu dari amalan-amalan yang bila ditinggalkan dapat mengkafirkan pelakunya kecuali amalan solat.”

b. Tidak kafir, atau murtad – Pendapat Imam Shafie (Mazhab Shafie), Malik (Mazhab Maliki) dan Abu Hanifah (Mazhab Hanafi). Antara dalil mereka: Firman Allah:

“Sesungguhnya Allah tidak akan memaafkan syirik, tetapi akan memaafkan dosa yang selainnya bagi sesiapa yang Dia mahu.”

Perhatian: Bukan tujuannya di sini untuk membahaskan pendapat yang lebih tepat. Tumpuan mesti diberikan kepada hakikat betapa besarnya dosa meninggalkan solat kerana MALAS, sehinggakan perbincangan ulama adalah di sempadan Islam dan kekufuran. Bayangkan sekiranya pendapat yang tepat adalah hukum murtad bagi yang meninggalkan solat, maka sia-sialah segala amal soleh yang telah dilakukan, firman Allah:

“Barangsiapa yang kafir sesudah beriman (tidak menerima hukum-hukum Islam) maka hapuslah amalannya dan ia di hari kiamat termasuk orang-orang merugi.”

3) Para ulama Islam, termasuk Imam-Imam Empat Mazhab, berselisih pendapat mengenai hukuman seorang muslim yang meninggalkan solat kerana MALAS:

a. Mazhab Hanbali – Hukuman bunuh kerana telah murtad
b. Mazhab Shafie dan Maliki – Hukuman bunuh, tetapi bukan kerana murtad
c. Mazhab Hanafi – Hukuman penjara dan dipukul sehingga keluar darah, sampai dia mula bersolat.

Perhatian: Seperti juga di atas, bukanlah maksud saya untuk membahaskan pendapat yang paling tepat. Bayangkan kita berada di dalam sebuah negara Islam (Khilafah Islamiyah), dan kita meninggalkan solat kerana malas, maka hukumannya bunuh, menurut jumhur ulama! Betapa besarnya dosa meninggalkan solat ini sehinggakan hukumannya sedemikan! Dengan hukumannya sedemikian rupa, dan hampirnya ia kepada kekufuran, tidak syak lagi dosanya lebih berat daripada makan daging babi, minum arak!

4) Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala dalam firman-Nya:
“Apakah yang memasukkan kamu ke dalam neraka Saqar?” Mereka menjawab, “Kami dahulu tidak termasuk orang-orang yang mengerjakan shalat….”
[Al-Muddaththir: 42-43]

Surah an-Nisaa: 59 Dalil Empat Sumber Islam

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

Terjemahan ayat: “Hai orang-orang yang beriman, taatilah Allah dan taatilah Rasul (Nya), dan ulil amri di antara kamu. Kemudian jika kamu berlainan pendapat tentang sesuatu, maka kembalikanlah ia kepada Allah (Al Quran) dan Rasul (sunnahnya), jika kamu benar-benar beriman kepada Allah dan hari kemudian. Yang demikian itu lebih utama (bagimu) dan lebih baik akibatnya.”

Ayat ini telah diterangkan oleh beberapa ulama-ulama tafsir (bukan daripada akal saya sendiri) bahawa ianya dalil empat sumber syariah iaitu:
1) Quran
2) Sunnah
3) Ijma’
4) Qiyas

Antara mereka adalah Fakhruddin ar-Razi, Ibn Adil, al-Baydawi, Abu as-Sa’ud, ash-Shanqiti, Ibn ‘Ajeebah, Muhammad Sayyid at-Tantawi, dan al-Aloosee dengan sedikit perbezaan dalam penerangan-penerangan mereka.

Imam al-Aloosee dalam kitab tafsirnya Ruh al-Ma’ani, katanya:

والحق أن الآية دليل على إثبات القياس بل هي متضمنة لجميع الأدلة الشرعية ، فإن المراد بإطاعة الله العمل بالكتاب ، وبإطاعة الرسول العمل بالسنة ، وبالرد إليهما القياس لأن رد المختلف فيه الغير المعلوم من النص إلى المنصوص عليه إنما يكون بالتمثيل والبناء عليه ، وليس القياس شيئاً وراء ذلك ، وقد علم من قوله سبحانه : { فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ } أنه عند عدم النزاع يعمل بما اتفق عليه وهو الإجماع .

Terjemahannya: “Sebenarnya, ayat ini adalah dalil menbuktikan qiyas (adalah salah satu sumber Islam). Malah, ianya (ayat ini) merangkumi kesemua dalil-dalil syariah. Sesungguhnya, yang dimaksudkan dengan “Taati Allah” adalah beramal dengan al-Quran; dan (yang dimaksudkan) dengan “Taati Rasul” adalah beramal dengan Sunnah; dan (yang dimaksudkan) dengan merujuk kepada kedua-duanya adalah Qiyas kerana mengembalikan sesuatu yang tidak dipersetujui yang tidak maklum daripada nas (Quran & sunnah) kepada yang memang ada nas hanyalah dengan cara membuat persamaan dan membina hukum berdasarkannya, dan qiyas tidaklah lebih daripada itu. Dan diketahui daripada firmanNya: “Kemudian jika kamu berlainan pendapat tentang sesuatu” bahawa ketika tiada perselisihan pendapat maka diamalkan apa yang dipersetujui dan itulah Ijma’.”

Thursday, July 16, 2009

Ergonomics - Walking with one shoe only!

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: لا يمش أحدكم في نعل واحدة لينعلهما جميعا أو ليخلعهما جميعا وفي رواية أو ليحفهما جميعا متفق عليه

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "None of you should walk wearing one shoe; either wear them both or take both off .''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

وعنه قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إذا انقطع شسع نعل أحدكم فلا يمش في الأخرى حتى يصلحها رواه مسلم

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When the lace of one of the shoes of one of you snaps, he should not walk with the other until he has got the lace repaired.''

When one reads the commentaries of the scholars regarding these hadiths, they came up with a variety of explanation for its wisdoms.

I quote Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips:
"Thus, there may very well be some medically related reasons for the Islamic prohibition on walking in a single sandal or shoe - which is yet to be discovered. Perhaps, it may be due to a temperature imbalance created by the temperature difference between the covered foot and the bare foot when one walks on ground colder or warmer than his body temperature."
[Tafseer Soorah al-Hujuraat pg. 182]

Perhaps he has a valid point. However, it is immediately apparent to those who have some knowledge regarding ergonomics, that this prohibition has a lot to do with ergonomics of walking or running with only a shoe and a bare foot and that this will lead to health problems in the future due to continued imbalance of weight distribution between the two feet.

"Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability."

Monday, July 13, 2009

Unsafe Condition - Change it!

عَنْ أَبِي ذَرٍّعَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ أَعْمَالُ أُمَّتِي حَسَنُهَا وَسَيِّئُهَا فَوَجَدْتُ فِي مَحَاسِنِ أَعْمَالِهَا الْأَذَى يُمَاطُ عَنْ الطَّرِيقِ وَوَجَدْتُ فِي مَسَاوِي أَعْمَالِهَا النُّخَاعَةَ تَكُونُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ لَا تُدْفَنُ

Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "The deeds of my people, good and bad, were presented before me, and I found the removal of harmful objects from the road among their good deeds, and phlegm which might be in a mosque left unburied among their evil deeds".

Malay translation: Abu Dharr (RA) meriwayatkan: Nabi (SAW) bersabda: "Amalan-amalan umatku diperlihatkan kepadaku, yang baik dan yang buruk, dan aku dapati mengalihkan objek yang merbahaya daripada jalan adalah tergolong dalam amalan yang baik, dan aku dapati perbuatan membiarkan hingus (atau ludah) di dalam masjid tanpa ditutupi adalah tergolong dalam amalan yang buruk."

Note: The mosque during that time had sand and pebbles as its floor. This is the character or attitude of a true muslim. Dangerous conditions will not be left unchanged. He changes the dangerous condition by removing it (if not needed) or replacing it (if needed). If not, at the very least control the traffic around it, by isolating, or other controls, be it engineering or administrative. This hadith is one of the most explicit on how the prophet emphasised safety, demonstrating the hierarchy of control, where removal takes precedence over other control methods. In other narrations, removal of harmful objects is said to be one of the branches of faith (Iman), and it is charity. Harmful objects refer to all types of harm, whether sharp, blunt, slippery, smelly, irritating, etc.

عن أبي هريرة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: لقد رأيت رجلا يتقلب في الجنة في شجرة قطعها من ظهر الطريق كانت تؤذي المسلمين رواه مسلم . وفي رواية مر رجل بغصن شجرة على ظهر طريق فقال والله لأنحين هذا عن المسلمين لا يؤذيهم فأدخل الجنة . وفي رواية لهما: بينما رجل يمشي بطريق وجد غصن شوك على الطريق فأخره فشكر الله له فغفر له .

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "I saw a man going about in Jannah (and enjoying himself) as a reward for cutting a tree, from the middle of the road,which was causing inconvenience to the Muslims".

Another narration says: "A man who passed by a branch of a tree leaning over a road and decided to remove it, saying: `By Allah! I will remove it from the way of Muslims so that it would not harm them.' On account of this he was admitted to Jannah".

According to the narration in Al-Bukhari and Muslim: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "While a man was walking, he saw a thorny branch on the road, so he removed it and Allah appreciated his action and forgave him".

Malay translation: Abu Hurairah (RA) meriwayatkan: Nabi (SAW) said: "Aku telah melihat seorang lelaki masuk Syurga menikmati ganjarannya kerana memotong pokok di tengah jalan yang menggangu orang-orang Islam."

Di dalam riwayat lain: "Ada seorang lelaki yang sedang berjalan dan terjumpa dahan pokok yang mengganggu laluan, lalu dia berkata: "Demi Allah! Aku akan singkirkan dahan ini dari jalan orang-orang Islam agar mereka tidak tercedera." Lalu dia dimasukkan ke Syurga."

Menurut riwayat al-Bukhari dan Muslim, Rasulullah (SAW) berkata: "Ketika seorang lelaki sedang berjalan, dia ternampak dahan berduri di atas jalan, lalu dia alihkan. Maka Allah bersyukur kepadanya dan memasukkan dia ke dalam Syurga."

If your ultimate aim is to seek the pleasure of Allah and earn a place in His Paradise, then promoting SAFETY AND HEALTH IS ONE OF THE WAYS TO PARADISE!

However, muslims will need to fulfil the other branches of faith, especially Tawheed, in order to be safe in the Hereafter and earn the full rewards sought after.

Sunday, July 12, 2009

SOLAT: Reciting verse 33:56 by bilal before khutbah

Question: It is noted locally for most Juma'at prayers that the Bilal will each time recite this Ayat 33:56 as the 'introduction and invitation' of the the khatib to take his place up the mimbar to commence the khutbah (after the 2nd azan that is). If asked many of the bilals will not exactly know why they do it other than by tradition. I am trying to establish the dalil for it but have so far not found anything to support the ritual. Can anybody here? Is it an innovation - yang di ada2kan?

 الحمد لله رب العالمين، والسلاة والسلام على الرسول الكريم وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

This practice has been mentioned in some books of Shafi'e mazhab by later scholars of the mazhab. The authors themselves confirm that this practice has no proof from the Sunnah and athar including the rightly guided caliphs, but then mention the ruling of this practice as Bid'ah Hasanah! See: Haashiah al-Jamal 'ala Sharh Manhaj al-Tullab by Sulayman bin Umar al-Jamal (d. 1204h); and Haashiyah al-Bujairimi 'ala al-Minhaj by Sulayman bin Muhammad al-Bujairimi (d. 1221).

The correct view is the practice should be stopped because it is an innovation in the matter of the religion and the prophet said:

 مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ

"Whoever practises a deed that we have not commanded, then it is rejected." [Muslim]

And as Ibn Kathir mentioned in his Tafsir:

 ولو كان خيرا لسبقونا إليه

"If it was good, surely (the companions of the prophet) would have beaten us to it."

Imam Al-Albaani (رحمه الله) mentioned in his listing of innovations done on Friday by muslims, no. 19 & 20 he mentioned:
19 - الترقية ، وهي تلاوة آية : إن الله وملائكته يصلون على النبي

20 -ثم حديث : (( إذا قلت لصاحبك ... )) يجهر بذلك المؤذنون عند خروج الخطيب حتى يصل إلى المنبر "

19. At-Tarqiyah - ie. the reciting of verse: "Verily Allah and the Angels send their prayers to the prophet ..." [33:56]

20. Then (mentioning) the hadith: "If you say to your friend, during Jumu'ah, Quiet!...", loudly by the muazzin while the Khatib comes out till he reaches the minbar."

Wal-hamdu lillahi rabbi l-'alamin.

Friday, July 10, 2009

Introduction to the Science of Hadith 2 (Introduction) - By Shaikh Suhaib Hassan

The Muslims are agreed that the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam, after the Glorious Qur'an. The authentic Sunnah is contained within the vast body of Hadith literature.[1]

A hadith (pl. ahadith) is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters). A text may seem to be logical and reasonable but it needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be acceptable; 'Abdullah b. al-Mubarak (d. 181 AH), one of the illustrious teachers of Imam al-Bukhari, said,

الْإِسْنَادُ مِنْ الدِّينِ وَلَوْلَا الْإِسْنَادُ لَقَالَ مَنْ شَاءَ مَا شَاءَ

"The isnad is part of the religion: had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to would have said whatever he liked."[2]

During the lifetime of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and after his death, his Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings. The Successors (Tabi'un) followed suit; some of them used to quote the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through the Companions while others would omit the intermediate authority - such a hadith was later known as mursal. It was found that the missing link between the Successor and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) might be one person, i.e. a Companion, or two people, the extra person being an older Successor who heard the hadith from the Companion. This is an example of how the need for the verification of each isnad arose; Imam Malik (d. 179) said, "The first one to utilise the isnad was Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri" (d. 124).[3]

The other more important reason was the deliberate fabrication of ahadith by various sects which appeared amongst the Muslims, in order to support their views (see later, under discussion of maudu' ahadith). Ibn Sirin (d. 110), a Successor, said, "They would not ask about the isnad. But when the fitnah (trouble, turmoil, esp. civil war) happened, they said: Name to us your men. So the narrations of the Ahl al-Sunnah (Adherents to the Sunnah) would be accepted, while those of the Ahl al-Bid'ah (Adherents to Innovation) would not be accepted."[4]
FOOTNOTE: 1. Ar. Sunnah: Way, Path, Tradition, Example. See An Introduction to the Sunnah by Suhaib Hasan (Understanding Islam Series no. 5, published by Al-Quran Society), for Qur'anic proofs of revelation besides the Qur'an, the importance of the Sunnah, and a brief history of the collections of Hadith. See also Imam al- Shafi'i's al-Risalah for the authoritative position of the Sunnah (Eng. trans., pp. 109- 116).
2. Related by Imam Muslim in the Introduction to his Sahih - see Sahih Muslim (ed. M.F. 'Abdul Baqi, 5 vols., Cairo, 1374/1955), 1:15 & Sahih Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi (18 vols. in 6, Cairo, 1349), 1:87. The existing English translation of Sahih Muslim, by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, does not contain this extremely valuable Introduction.
3. Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Al-Jarh wa l-Ta'dil (8 vols., Hyderabad, 1360-1373), 1:20.
4. Sahih Muslim, 1:15. See Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja (Ta Ha publishers / Al-Quran Society, London, 1407/1986), pp. 15-17 for discussion of this statement of Ibn Sirin.

Thursday, July 9, 2009

Ergonomics - Sleeping Posture

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنهما قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا أوى إلى فراشه نام على شقه الأيمن، ثم قال اللَّهُمَّ أَسْلَمْتُ نَفْسِي إِلَيْكَ وَوَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِي إِلَيْكَ وَفَوَّضْتُ أَمْرِي إِلَيْكَ وَأَلْجَأْتُ ظَهْرِي إِلَيْكَ رَغْبَةً وَرَهْبَةً إِلَيْكَ لَا مَلْجَأَ وَلَا مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلَّا إِلَيْكَ آمَنْتُ بِكِتَابِكَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْتَ وَبِنَبِيِّكَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلْتَ رواه البخاري

Al-Bara' bin `Azib (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Whenever Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) went to bed, he would lie down on his right side and recite:

اللَّهُمَّ أَسْلَمْتُ نَفْسِي إِلَيْكَ وَوَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِي إِلَيْكَ وَفَوَّضْتُ أَمْرِي إِلَيْكَ وَأَلْجَأْتُ ظَهْرِي إِلَيْكَ رَغْبَةً وَرَهْبَةً إِلَيْكَ لَا مَلْجَأَ وَلَا مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلَّا إِلَيْكَ آمَنْتُ بِكِتَابِكَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْتَ وَبِنَبِيِّكَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلْتَ

O Allah! I have submitted myself to You, I have turned my face to You, committed my affairs to You, and depend on You for protection out of desire for You and out of fear of You (expecting Your reward and fearing Your punishment). There is no refuge and no place of safety from You but with You. I believed in the Book You have revealed, and in the Prophet You have sent ).''

Malay translation: Al-Bara' bin `Azib (RA) meriwayatkan: Seringkali Rasulullah (SAW) bila masuk ke tempat tidurnya beliau akan baring di sebelah (rusuk) kanan dan membaca:
"Ya Allah, aku telah tundukkan diriku kepadaMu, dan memandangkan wajahku kepadaMu, dan menyerahkan urusanku kepadaMu, dan aku berlindung denganMu, dengan harapan (ganjaran)serta takut kepada (Azab) Mu, tiada tempat berlindung dan selamat daripada (Azab) Mu kecuali dengan (kembali) kepadaMu, aku beriman dengan KitabMu yang diturunkan, dan NabiMu yang diutuskan."

عن حذيفة رضي الله عنه قال: كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا أخذ مضجعه من الليل وضع يده تحت خده ثم يقول اللَّهُمَّ بِاسْمِكَ أَمُوتُ وَأَحْيَا وإذا استيقظ قال الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَحْيَانَا بَعْدَ مَا أَمَاتَنَا وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ رواه البخاري

Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whenever the Prophet (peace be upon him) lay down for sleep at night, he would place his (right) hand under his (right) cheek and supplicate:

اللَّهُمَّ بِاسْمِكَ أَمُوتُ وَأَحْيَا

"O Allah, with Your Name will I die and live (wake up).''

And when he woke up, he would supplicate:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَحْيَانَا بَعْدَ مَا أَمَاتَنَا وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ

"All praise is due to Allah, Who has brought us back to life after He has caused us to die, and to Him is the return.''

Malay translation: Hudhaifah (RA) meriwayatkan: Seringkali ketika nabi (SAW) masuk ke tempat tidurnya di waktu malam, beliau akan (baring) meletakkan tangan (kanan) nya di bawah pipi (kanan) nya, kemudian berkata: "Segala pujian bagi Allah, Yang telah menghidupkan kami dari mati (tidur) kamu dan kepada Dialah tempat kembali."

عن عبد الله بن يزيد رضي الله عنهما أنه رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مستلقيا في المسجد واضعا إحدى رجليه على الأخرى
متفق عليه

Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that he saw Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) lying down on his back in the mosque, placing one leg on the other.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Malay translation: Abdullah bin Zaid (RA) meriwayatkan bahawa dia melihat Rasulullah (SAW) baring di atas belakangnya sambil meletakkan satu kaki di atas yang lain.

عن يعيش بن طخفة الغفاري رضي الله عنهما قال: قال أبي: بينما أنا مضطجع في المسجد على بطني إذا رجل يحركني برجله فقال إن هذه ضجعة يبغضها الله قال فنظرت فإذا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رواه أبو داود بإسناد صحيح

Ya`ish bin Tikhfah Al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: My father said: I was lying down on my belly in the mosque suddenly someone shook me with his foot and said, "Lying down this way is disapproved by Allah.'' I looked up and saw that it was Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). [Abu Dawud].

Malay translation: Ya'ish bin Tikhfah Al-Ghifari (RA) meriwayatkan: Bapaku berkata: Pernah aku sedang baring di atas perut di dalam masjid, tiba-tiba seseorang menggerakkan saya dengan kakinya seraya berkata: "Ini adalah cara berbaring yang dibenci oleh Allah." Bapaku berkata lagi: Maka aku menoleh dan mendapati (dia) adalah Rasulullah (SAW).

Commentary: The recommended sleeping posture is to sleep as the prophet did, on his right side, placing his right hand under his cheek so as to raise his head slightly. It is also permissible to sleep on one's back. However, sleeping on one's stomach is prohibited because Allah hates that which is harmful. Modern science has confirmed that sleeping on one's stomach is harmful to the spine.

Malay translation: Posisi tidur yang disunatkan adalah cara nabi melakukannya, di sebelah (rusuk) kanan, meletakkan tangan kanan di bawah pipinya agar kedudukkannya lebih tinggi sedikit. Adalah harus juga berbaring di atas belakang. Tetapi, posisi tidur di atas perut adalah dilarang kerana Allah benci sesuatu yang memudaratkan. Kajian sains moden telah membuktikan bahawa posisi tidur di atas perut akan memudaratkan tulang belakang.

Wednesday, July 8, 2009

An Introduction to the Science of Hadith 1 (Foreword) - By Shaikh Suhaib Hasan


All Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and on his family and companions.

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

"We have undoubtedly sent down the Reminder, and We will truly preserve it."
[al-Hijr, 15:9]

The above promise made by Allah is obviously fulfilled in the undisputed purity of the Qur'anic text throughout the fourteen centuries since its revelation. However, what is often forgotten by many Muslims is that the above divine promise also includes, by necessity, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), for it is the practical example of the implementation of the Qur'anic guidance, the Wisdom taught to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) along with the Scripture, and neither the Qur'an nor the Sunnah can be understood correctly without recourse to the other.

Hence, Allah preserved the Qur'an from being initially lost by the martyrdom of its memorisers, by guiding the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, endorsed by the consensus of the Messenger's Companions (may Allah bless him and grant him peace and may He be pleased with them), to compile the ayat (signs, miracles, "verses") of the Qur'an into one volume, after these had been scattered in writing on various materials and in memory amongst many faithful hearts. He safeguarded it from corruption by its enemies: disbelievers, heretics, and false prophets, by enabling millions of believers to commit it to memory with ease. He protected its teachings by causing thousands of people of knowledge to learn from its deep treasures and convey them to the masses, and by sending renewers of His Deen at the beginning of every century.

Similarly, Allah preserved the Sunnah by enabling the Companions and those after them (may Allah be pleased with them) to memorise, write down and pass on the statements of the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the descriptions of his Way, as well as to continue the blessings of practising the Sunnah. Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became threatened, Allah caused the Muslim nation to produce outstanding individuals of incredible memory-skills and analytical expertise, who journeyed tirelessly to collect hundreds of thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of precious wisdom of their Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and from the statements of the enormous number of 'ulama', the Companions and those who followed their way, who had taught in various centres of learning and helped to transmit the legacy of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) - all of this achieved through precise attention to the words narrated and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of Hadith. Action being the best way to preserve teachings, the renewers of Islam also revived the practice of the blessed authentic Sunnah.

Unfortunately however, statements will continue to be attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) although the person quoting them may have no idea what the people of knowledge of Hadith have ruled regarding those ahadith, thus ironically being in danger of contravening the Prophet's widely-narrated stern warnings about attributing incorrect/unsound statements to him. For example, here are some very commonly-quoted ahadith, which actually vary tremendously in their degree of authenticity from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace):
1. "Surah al-Ikhlas is worth a third of the Qur'an."
2. The hadith about the Ninety-Name Names of Allah.
3. Allah says, "I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I created a creation (mankind), then made Myself known to them, and they recognised Me."
4. Allah says, "Were it not for you (O Muhammad), I would not have created the universe."
5. When Allah completed creation, He wrote in a Book (which is) with Him, above His Throne, "Verily, My Mercy will prevail over My Wrath."
6. Allah says, "Neither My heaven nor My earth can contain Me, but the heart of My believing slave can contain Me."
7. "He who knows himself, knows his Lord."
8. "Where is Allah?"
9. "Love of one's homeland is part of Faith."
10. "I have left amongst you two things which, if you hold fast to them, you will never stray: the Book of Allah, and my Sunnah."
11. "I have left among you that which if you abide by, you will never go astray: the Book of Allah, and my Family, the Members of my House."
12. The hadith giving ten Companions, by name, the good tidings of Paradise.
13. "If the iman (faith) of Abu Bakr was weighed against the iman of all the people of the earth, the former would outweigh the latter."
14. "I am the City of Knowledge, and 'Ali is its Gate."
15. "My companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be guided." 16. "The differing amongst my Ummah is a mercy."
17. "My Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects: seventy-two will be in the Fire, and one in the Garden."
18. Prophecies about the coming of the Mahdi (the guided one), Dajjal (the False Christ, the Anti-Christ) and the return of Jesus Christ son of Mary.
19. Description of punishment and bliss in the grave, for the wicked and pious people respectively.
20. Intercession by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and the believers seeing Allah, on the Day of Judgment.
21. "Paradise is under the feet of mothers."
22. "Paradise is under the shade of swords."
23. "Seeking knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim."
24. "Seek knowledge, even if you have to go to China."
25. "The ink of the scholar is holier than the blood of the martyr."
26. "We have returned from the lesser Jihad to the greater Jihad (i.e. the struggle against the evil of one's soul)."

The methodology of the expert scholars of Hadith in assessing such narrations and sorting out the genuine from the mistaken/fabricated etc., forms the subject-matter of a wealth of material left to us by the muhaddithun (scholars of Hadith, "traditionists"). This short treatise is a humble effort to introduce this extremely wide subject to English readers. The author has derived great benefit from the outstanding scholarly work in this field, Muqaddimah Ibn al- Salah.

A brief explanation of the verdicts from the experts in this field on the above ahadith is given in the Appendix.

We ask Allah to accept this work, and make it beneficial to its readers.

Supplication to Allah - Do'a

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ

Translation: “And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning Me, then: I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.”
[al-Baqarah: 186]

Among the benefits derived from this verse:

1) Allah mentioned this verse in between verses talking about fasting. The verse before it starts with:

“The month of Ramadhan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong)…”
[al-Baqarah : 185]

and the verse after it,

“It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of the fasts,…”
[al-Baqarah : 187]

The order of the verses suggests that the one who fasts in the month of Ramadhan should busy himself with the recitation of Quran and supplicating to Allah. It is established in the Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the hadith:

 ثلاث دعوات لا ترد : دعوة الوالد ودعوة الصائم ودعوة المسافر

“Three supplications is not rejected: Supplication of the father; supplication of the fasting one: and the supplication of a traveler.”
[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi from Anas and authenticated by al-Albaani in as-Saheehah (no. 1797)]

2) Allah mentioned the questioners as “My Slaves” (عبادي), attaching them to Himself as a way of praising them and to show that Allah is pleased with them. “Slaves” (عباد) is the best of ranks, hence another form of praise towards the questioners. So, it is the habit of the slave or worshipper to ask about his Rabb and His Attributes, His Commands and His Prohibitions. And this is from those things which Allah is pleased with and will reward for, provided the questioning does not go beyond the bounds, like the questioning of the People of the Book, and the questioning is to gain beneficial knowledge.

3) Allah, the Exalted said: “And when My slaves ask you concerning me, then I am indeed near…” and He did not say: “And when My slaves ask you concerning me, then SAY: I am indeed near…” without an intermediary! This is also another way of praising the questioners, since Allah answered the question Himself without telling the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to answer it. Also, the supplication should be without intermediaries, as Allah answered (the question) without one (intermediary).

4) The statement of Allah: “Then I am near, I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me…” In it there is the question of the closeness of Allah.

How do we understand it?

4.1) The best of explanations is the Tafsir of Quran by the Quran. So, we read in the Quran:

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَا يَكُونُ مِنْ نَجْوَى ثَلَاثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمْ وَلَا خَمْسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُهُمْ وَلَا أَدْنَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَلَا أَكْثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كَانُوا ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا عَمِلُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

“Have you not seen that Allah knows whatsoever is in the Heavens and whosoever is on the Earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, not of less than that or more, but He is with them wheresoever they may be. And afterwards on the Day of Resurrection, He will inform them of what they did. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”
[al-Mujadalah : 7]

The verse starts with the knowledge of Allah and finishes with it, so the whole verse is talking about His knowledge. Hence, the meaning of Allah is with us or them, is in His Knowledge.

4.2) The statement of Allah:

الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى

“The Most Beneficient rose over the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty)”
[Taha : 5]

So, Allah is above His Throne, and His knowledge is everywhere. Hence, “I am indeed near” can only mean closeness in knowledge, response and attention.

5) Allah said: “I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me…” Here, Allah used the word “Supplicant” (الداع) which could mean a muslim or a non-muslim. Hence, we can understand that Allah is the One Who answers the supplications of the muslims as well as the non-muslims.

6) The phrase: “So let them obey Me and believe in Me…”, actually in the Arabic text it means “So let them answer me.” But to really understand this verse, or in fact the whole Quran, one has to refer to the tafsir of the muslim scholars.

According to al-Qurtubi, there are three opinions to this phrase as to what was meant by it:
First saying, it means: “So let them answer Me in those which I have called them to, ie, to believe in Me and do righteous deeds”
Second saying, it means: “So let them invoke or supplicate to Me.”
Third saying, it means: “So let them seek those things (deeds) which will make Me answer their supplication.”

This is not a contradiction, but rather one saying explains one aspect of the meaning of the verse while the others cover the other aspects. Hence, by combining the three sayings on the verse or phrase, we can deduce that Allah ordered man to invoke Him. And in invoking Him, seek to find and do those things which will make Him answer the supplications, and those things are without doubt the belief in Allah and doing righteous deeds.

It is important to note that ‘righteous deeds’ referred to are only considered righteous if they fulfill two conditions:
a. They were done seeking just the pleasure of Allah, or in other words, done with sincerity (Ikhlas)
b. They were done according to the Sunnah.

So, we find in the Sunnah of Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), those things which he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did during supplications, like raising his hands, supplicating at times when supplications are more likely to be accepted and others, which we can read in detail about in the book by Shaikh Husayn al-Awaishah, The Book of Supplication.

I would like to mention a hadith, number ten in the Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi, to further illustrate this sixth benefit from the verse above. On the authority of Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) who said: Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

إن الله تعالى طيب لا يقبل إلا طيبا وإن الله أمر المؤمنين بما أمر به المرسلين فقال تعالى { يا أيها الرسل كلوا من الطيبات واعملوا صالحا } وقال تعالى { يا أيها الذين آمنوا كلوا من طيبات ما رزقناكم } ثم ذكر الرجل يطيل السفر أشعث أغبر يمد يديه إلى السماء : يا رب يا رب ومطعمه حرام وملبسه حرام وغذي بالحرام فأنى يستجاب له

“Allah, the Exalted, is Good and accepts only that which is god. Allah has commanded the believers to do that which He commanded the Messengers, and the Exalted has said: “O Messenger! Eat of the lawful things wherewith We have provided you.”
[al-Baqarah : 172]

Then he mentioned (the case of) a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty and who spreads out his hands to the sky (saying): ‘O Rabb, O Rabb!’ – while his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, his clothing is unlawful and he is nourished unlawfully, so how can his invocation be accepted.”

This hadith explains perfectly the three sayings or opinions mentioned above. Here is a man, who answered the call of Allah to invoke Him, and sought, as well, those things (deeds) which will make Allah answer his supplication, and the example mentioned by Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was that the man made supplications during a journey, looking dusty, as a man on a journey often will be, and we know from the hadith mentioned in point (1) that the supplications of one on a journey is not rejected. And the man raised or spread his hands in supplication, and as we all know that it is from the Sunnah to do this during supplication. And he also asked with His Beautiiful Names, saying ‘O Rabb!’ In short, the man answered the call to invoke on Allah, and he sought those which will make Allah answer his supplications, but did not obey Allah in that which He commanded with, so his supplications were not answered.
[Translated from an Islamic Magazine al-Hady an-Nabawi]

Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Unsafe Act - Pointing a weapon to someone

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا يشير أحدكم إلى أخيه بالسلاح فإنه لا يدري لعل الشيطان ينزع في يده فيقع في حفرة من النار متفق عليه

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "None of you should point at his brother with a weapon because he does not know that Satan may make it lose from his hand and, as a result, he may fall into a pit of Hell-fire (by accidentally killing him).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Malay translation: Abu Hurairah (RA) berkata: Rasulullah (SAW) bersabda: “Janganlah seseorang kamu mengacu senjata kepada saudaranya (seIslam), kerana dia tidak tahu barangkali syaitan akan membuatkan senjata itu lucut (berlaku yang tidak baik) lalu jatuh ke lubang Neraka (kerana membunuh tanpa sengaja).”

وفي رواية لمسلم قال: قال أبو القاسم صلى الله عليه وسلم: من أشار إلى أخيه بحديدة فإن الملائكة تلعنه حتى ينزع وإن كان أخاه لأبيه وأمه

In another narration in Sahih Muslim is: Abul-Qasim (i.e., the Messenger of Allah) (PBUH) said, "He who points at his (Muslim) brother with a weapon is cursed by the angels even if the other person should be his real brother.''

Malay translation: Dalam hadith lain dalam Sahih Muslim: Rasululah (SAW) bersabda: “Sesiapa yang mengacu senjata kearah saudaranya, para malaikat akan terus melaknatinya sehingga dia berhenti, walaupun orang itu adik beradiknya yang sebapa seibu.”

وعن جابر رضي الله عنه قال: نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يتعاطى السيف مسلولا رواه أبو داود، والترمذي، وقال: حديث حسن

Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prohibited from presenting a drawn sword to another.''
[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].

Malay translation: Jabir (RA) berkata: Rasulullah melarang memberikan kepada yang lain pedang yang terhunus.

Shaikh Muhammad bin Saleh al-Uthaimin said:

فالمهم أن جميع أسباب الهلاك ينهى الإنسان أن يفعلها سواء أكان جادا أم هزلا، كما دل على ذلك حديث أبي هريرة

"The important point is that all causes of harm is prohibited whether serious or in jest, as pointed out by the hadith of Abu Hurairah."

The shaikh explained that the prohibition applies to all things harmful, including driving a car fast towards someone and swerving at the very end so as not to overrun the person concerned, this is also prohibited.
Likewise, one should never give harmful items to anyone from its blade side. If a naked sword drops from one's hand, it can injure someone's hand, foot or any part of the body. Similarly, the case of a sharp knife or any other similar weapon and tool.

When we study such things, we will be amazed to see the care which Islam has taken in safety.

Malay translation:
Shaikh Muhammad bin Saleh al-Uthaimin menerangkan: “Yang penting adalah semua asbab yang boleh membahayakan adalah terlarang, samada dalam keadaan serius atau berjenaka, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh hadith Abu Hurairah.” Shaikh tersebut menerangkan bahawa larangan itu adalah untuk semua perkara yang merbahaya, termasuk memandu kereta laju ke arah seseorang dan kemudian mengelak di saat akhir agar orang itu tidak digilis, seperti ini juga dilarang. Begitu juga, seseorang itu dilarang memberi benda-benda yang merbahaya kepada sesiapa mendahulukan bahagian yang tajam. Sekiranya pedang terhunus itu jatuh dari tangannya, ianya akan mencederakan tangan, kaki atau anggota badan orang lain. Seperti juga pisau yang tajam, dan lain-lain jenis senjata atau peralatan.

 Sekiranya kita kaji perkara-perkara seperti ini, kita akan dapati Islam mengambil berat tentang keselamatan.

Monday, July 6, 2009

Clarification of intent by Dr. Mohd Asri Zainal Abidin

I just want to clarify this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=notN0SOQUYI where Dr. Asri spoke about Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma). Some enemies of the sunnah have misunderstood this video, totally, so I intend to clarify the correct understanding. I am not a blind-follower of Dr. Asri, but he is a scholar and a mufti nonetheless, and we need to listen with good heart and good suspicion to understand what Dr. Asri meant.

Please allow me to briefly explain:
1) He started off saying Ibn ‘Abbas was still young when the prophet died, hence the scholars discussed from where did he got the knowledge of so many hadiths? Dr. Asri was not doubting his hadith. The proof is what Dr. Asri answered saying: “Kesimpulan yang mereka (iaitu para ulama hadith) buat, sebahagian besar daripada hadis-hadis Ibn Abbas tidak diambil secara langsung daripada nabi tetapi diambil daripada para sahabah yang lain.” This is well-known in the Science of Hadith as: Mursal as-Sahabi, where the junior sahabah narrated hadiths from senior sahabah without quoting the senior sahabah’s name. In Muqaddimah Ibn as-Salah (well-known reference for science of hadith), Ibn as-Salah said:

ثم إنا لم نعد في أنواع المرسل ونحوه ما يسمى في أصول الفقه : مرسل الصحابي مثل ما يرويه ( ابن عباس ) وغيره من أحداث الصحابة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يسمعوه منه لأن ذلك في حكم الموصول المسند لأن روايتهم عن الصحابة والجهالة بالصحابي غير قادحة لأن الصحابة كلهم عدول والله أعلم

“Then we do not count what is named in Usul al-Fiqh as Mursal as-Sahabi as one of the types of mursal (that are not considered hujjah), just like the narration of Ibn ‘Abbas and others of the junior sahabah from the Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) while they did not hear it (directly) from the prophet. This is because this type of hadith has the ruling of a mawsul musnad (connected, supported) hadith because they narrate from the sahabah and the sahabah’s name being missing (in the chain) does not impair (the status of hadith) because all companions are ‘udul (trustworthy). Allah knows best.”
[Muqaddimah Ibn as-Salah: pg 31]

2) Then he talked about the doa of the prophet for Ibn ‘Abbas: “…supaya diberikan kepadanya kefaqihan dalam agama dan berikan kealiman ilmu di dalam tafsir..” He was pointing out these points:
· Doa of the prophet here is just like what’s done nowadays.
· Sometimes, you bring your child to the ustaz for doa, the ustaz will just say: “InsyaAllah”, and then goes back home and forget. Rather, he should make doa immediately, he said: “Sekurang-kurangnya doakan Ya Allah alimkan dia dalam agama…” Dr. Asri did not, by any means, intend to ridicule the action of going to a religious person for doa, as misunderstood.
· He said: “Walaupun nabi doakan untuk Ibn Abbas, tiada dalam sejarah mengatakan dia pandai begitu sahaja…” Which means, Ibn ‘Abbas did not become a scholar in Tafsir through not doing anything! Ibn Abbas worked hard to get hadith and knowledge, and hence became who he was, a manifestation of the acceptance of Prophet’s doa for him.
· When he mentioned: “Macamana kita mahu manusia pandai dengan makan kismis itu…” This statement actually to support the previous point that Ibn Abbas did not just become a scholar out of thin air, but worked hard for it, ie. he took the Asbab (cause &effect). But, because of the prophet’s doa, Ibn Abbas was granted taufik (success) to attain the level of knowledge he reached.

3) He mentioned that even if the prophet made doa for Ibn Abbas, still his many explanation (tafsiran) of the Quran are discussed. I’ll point out the following: · He did not say rejected because he did say: “…walaupun banyak diterima (oleh ulama)…”
· And he said that apart from Ibn Abbas, there are other sahabah who had opinions, which is true because who can say Ibn Abbas is more knowledgeable than Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali?
· And he pointed out no scholar ever said: “Setelah Ibn Abbas memberi pendapat mengenai satu-satu ayat tertentu, maka tidak boleh sesiapa lagi untuk memberikan pendapat..” Even though the prophet made doa for him. Ibn Abbas himself said:

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ " لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ بَعْدَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إلَّا وَيُؤْخَذُ مِنْ قَوْلِهِ وَيُتْرَكُ إلَّا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ " وَأَخَذَ هَذِهِ الْكَلِمَةَ مِنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ مُجَاهِدٌ وَأَخَذَهَا مِنْهُمَا مَالِكٌ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ وَاشْتُهِرَتْ عَنْهُ

“No one, apart for the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), except that his saying is accepted or rejected. Except the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).” Imam as-Subki mentioned: Mujahid took these words from Ibn Abbas, then Imam Malik took from both of them who then became famous for these words.
[Fatawa as-Subki, Bab as-Salat, pg. 148]
· The point he was trying to drive at was: No one, even with position as Mufti, Professor can claim that his opinion must be taken blindly. If Ibn Abbas’ opinions were discussed by scholars, then others lower than him, be it Mufti, Professor or others can surely have wrong and debatable opinions. I think this is a valid point. Just to give two examples on Ibn ‘Abbas’ opinions:

1) Tafsir of surah an-Nur verse 31:

وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا
(…and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent…)

Ibn Abbas’ opinion is: Her face and palms. However Ibn Mas’ud’s opinion was: Such as clothes and outer garments. Please refer to Tafsir Ibn Kathir or other books of tafsir. And it is well-known how the scholars of Mazhabs differed whether to wear hijab to cover including the face and hands or not.

2) Tafsir of surah an-Nisaa verse 43:

أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ
(…or you touched women…)

Ibn Mas’ud’s opinion was: Touch without intercourse. Whereas Ibn ‘Abbas’ opinion was: Intercourse. Please refer to Tafsir Ibn Kathir or other books of tafsir. And if we hold on to Imam Shafi’e’s opinion on issue of nullifying the wudhu through merely touching of opposite sex, we will be forced to reject Ibn ‘Abbas’ opinion on this tafsir. I hope this clarifies any misunderstandings and misquotes by whoever who listened and understood otherwise, which is not fair for the one misunderstood or misquoted. Imam an-Nawawi (rahimahullah) said:

باب تحريم سماع الغيبة وأمر من سمع غيبة محرمة بردها والإنكار على قائلها...

“Chapter on prohibition of backbiting; and command that whoever heard prohibited backbiting to refute it and reject the backbiting...”
[Riyadh as-Salihin, Chapter 243, pg. 449]

وعن أبي الدرداء رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : [ من رد عن عرض أخيه رد الله عن وجهه النار يوم القيامة ] رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن

On the authority of Abu ad-Darda (radhiallahu ‘anhu) that the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Whoever defends the honour of his (muslim) brother, Allah will secure his face against the Fire on the Day of Resurrection.”
[Tirmidhi, who said: Hadith is hasan]

Surah Hud:118-119 Disagreement – Any Way Out?

وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ۝ إِلَّا مَنْ رَحِمَ رَبُّكَ وَلِذَلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

"And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made mankind one Ummah [nation or community (following one religion only i.e. Islâm)], but they will not cease to disagree,- Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy (the follower of truth - Islâmic Monotheism) and for that did He create them. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled (i.e. His Saying): "Surely, I shall fill Hell with jinns and men all together."
[Surah Hud : 118]

From Tafsir Ibn Kathir (summarized): Allah, the Exalted, informs that He is able to make all of mankind one nation upon belief, or disbelief. This is just as He said,

وَلَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لآمَنَ مَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا
"And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together."

Allah goes on to say,

وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَإِلاَّ مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ
"but they will not cease to disagree. Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy"

This means that people will always differ in religions, creeds, beliefs, opinions and sects. Concerning Allah's statement,

إِلاَّ مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ
"Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy,"

This means that those who have received the mercy of Allah by following the Messengers are excluded from this. They are those who adhere to what they are commanded in the religion by the Messengers of Allah. That has always been their characteristic until the coming of the seal of the Prophets and Messengers (ie. Muhammad). Those who received Allah's mercy are those who followed him, believed in him and supported him. Therefore, they succeeded by achieving happiness in this life and the Hereafter. They are the Saved Group mentioned in the Hadith recorded in the Musnad and Sunan collections of Hadith. The routes of transmission of this Hadith all strengthen each other (in authenticity). In these narrations the Prophet said,

إِنَّ الْيَهُودَ افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى إِحْدَى وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَإِنَّ النَّصَارَى افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَسَتَفْتَرِقُ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةُ عَلَى ثَلَاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، كُلُّهَا فِي النَّارِ إِلَّا فِرْقَةً وَاحِدَة

"Verily, the Jews split into seventy-one sects, and the Christians split into seventy-two sects, and this nation (of Muslims) will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the Fire except one sect."

They (the Companions) said, "Who are they (the Saved Sect), O Messenger of Allah'' He said,

مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي
"The sect that is upon what my Companions and I are upon."

Al-Hakim recorded this narration in his Mustadrak with this additional wording. My own comments: Let’s get our thinking cap and ponder on the verse and also what Imam Ibn Kathir was trying to say:
1) Allah confirmed that He has the Power to make all Mankind unite under one religion, as one nation.
2) Allah left mankind to disagree, as Ibn Kathir pointed out, with regards to “religions, creeds, beliefs, opinions and sects”.
3) Allah excluded a group of people from the ruling of disagreement, and they are those: “whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy”. In other words, disagreement is not mercy.
4) According to Imam Ibn Katihr, “Those who received Allah's mercy are those who followed him (prophet Muhammad), believed in him and supported him.”
5) How to recognise these people who received Allah’s mercy? The answer given was the hadith: “The sect that is upon what my Companions and I are upon” I would like to stress here based on the tafsir that the ONLY WAY to get out of DISAGREEMENT (ikhtilaf) is by returning to the way of the sahabah. No surprise that the prophet said: “The best of generation is my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.” [Agreed upon]

But how do we know this way? Surely, the generation after them being the second best and then the next generation being the third best have all followed their way. These generations were known in Islam as the generation of as-salaf as-saleh. In other words, we have here A BENCHMARK! THE ACID TEST! So those who want to be saved, then he should look to follow the sahabah in understanding this religion. I end the article with what Ibn Hajr said regarding a statement commonly used by the khalaf saying:

طريقة السلف أسلم، طريقة الخلف أعلم وأحكم
"The Way of the Salaf is safer, the way of the Khalaf (generations after the salaf) is more knowledgeable and wiser."

وقال غيره قول من قال طريقة السلف أسلم وطريقة الخلف أحكم ليس بمستقيم لأنه ظن أن طريقة السلف مجرد الإيمان بألفاظ القرآن والحديث من غير فقه في ذلك وان طريقه الخلف هي استخراج معاني النصوص المصروفة عن حقائقها بأنواع المجازات فجمع هذا القائل بين الجهل بطريقة السلف والدعوى في طريقة الخلف وليس الأمر كما ظن بل السلف في غاية المعرفة بما يليق بالله تعالى وفي غاية التعظيم له والخضوع لأمره والتسليم لمراده وليس من سلك طريق الخلف واثقا بان الذي يتأوله هو المراد ولا يمكنه القطع بصحة تاويله

Al-Hafizh Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani in his famous book Fath al-Baaree, explanation of Sahih al-Bukhari: And others quote this saying: ‘The way of the Salaf is safer, and the way of the Khalaf is wiser’ is not correct because it is a belief that the way of the Salaf as merely (blind) belief of the words of the Quran and hadith without understanding and that the way of the Khalaf is derivation of the meanings of the texts dismissed off its realities through various types of metaphors. So the person who says this has combined between ignorance of the way of the Salaf and false claims about the way of the Khalaf. And the matter is not as he thinks. Rather, as-Salaf had the utmost knowledge of whatever is appropriate for Allah, and they had the utmost glorification of Him, and (complete) submission to His commandments, and unquestioning recognition of whatever was meant by Allah (in the Quran and Sunnah). And whoever treads the path of the Khalaf is neither confident that his takwil is actually what was meant (by Allah and His Messenger), nor can he be sure of the soundness of his takwil.”
[Fath al-Bari, explanation of Kitab at-Tauhid in Sahih al-Bukhari]

Wednesday, July 1, 2009

Prophet's advice

عن أم الدرداء ، عن أبي الدرداء قال : أوصاني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بتسع : لا تشرك بالله شيئا ؛ وإن قطعت أو حرقت ، ولا تتركن الصلاة المكتوبة متعمدا ، ومن تركها متعمدا برئت منه الذمة ، ولا تشربن الخمر ، فإنها مفتاح كل شر ، وأطع والديك ، وإن أمراك أن تخرج من دنياك فاخرج لهما ، ولا تنازعن ولاة الأمر وإن رأيت أنك أنت ، ولا تفرر من الزحف ، وإن هلكت وفر أصحابك ، وأنفق من طولك على أهلك ، ولا ترفع عصاك عن أهلك ، وأخفهم في الله عز وجل

Translation: Umm ad-Darda narrated from Abu ad-Darda, who said: The messenger (peace and blessings upon him) gave me nine pieces of advice:
1. Do not associate anything with Allah, even if you are tortured with cuts and burns.
2. Do not intentionally miss a prayer (as-salat), for those who intentionally miss a prayer will be on their own.
3. Never drink wine, for it is the key to all evil.
4. Obey your parents, even if they order you to leave your world, leave it for their sake.
5. Do not dispute with the authorities, even if you think that you are right (and they are wrong).
6. Do not run away from battle, even if you are faced with certain death and all of your companions have fled.
7. Spend from your wealth on your family.
8. Do not hold back your stick against them, and
9. Make them fear of Allah.
[Reported by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (no. 18). The hadith is hasan, see al-Irwa by al-Albani]

Brief Explanation: The prophet combined seven items in his advice, showing the priorities in his da’wah.

First, he emphasised the importance of Tawheed, because his da’wah is about saving people from the Fire. Tawheed is the prerequisite to enter Paradise, hence whoever dies upon Tawheed will eventually enter Paradise, even if he was to be punished for his sins first. This is the precise reason, why da’wah must always start with Tawheed and once understood, the next important topic may be addressed ALONG WITH TAWHEED. Tawheed should always be emphasised and renewed. This is safeguarding the Rights of Allah.

Second, he emphasised the importance of the obligatory prayers. This will be the first action to be asked about on the Day of Judgment, and if it is good, then all others will be good, and if it is bad, then all others will be likewise. This is safeguarding that which will make one enter Paradise.

Third, he emphasised the evil of wine (or any other intoxicating food) to safeguard the minds. Its hazard to health and safety outweighs the benefits that may be gained from it. Hence, Islam made it unlawful for all.

Fourth, he emphasised the importance of obeying one’s parents. They are the closest of relatives. Obedience is in all matters, except when they order to disobey Allah.

Fifth, he emphasised the importance of obeying the ruler, even if you think they are wrong in oppressing you. In another narration:

مَنْ رَأَى مِنْ أَمِيرِهِ شَيْئًا يَكْرَهُهُ فَلْيَصْبِرْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ فَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ شِبْرًا فَمَاتَ إِلَّا مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً

Translation: “Whoever sees in his ruler something he dislikes, then he should be patient, verily whoever breaks away from the Jama’ah (Muslim Nation) the span of a hand, then dies, except that he died the death of the time of ignorance (Jahiliyah).”

[Sahih Bukhari]

قَالَ حُذَيْفَةُ بْنُ الْيَمَانِ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا كُنَّا بِشَرٍّ فَجَاءَ اللَّهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَنَحْنُ فِيهِ فَهَلْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ هَذَا الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ هَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرِّ خَيْرٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ قَالَ يَكُونُ بَعْدِي أَئِمَّةٌ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ بِهُدَايَ وَلَا يَسْتَنُّونَ بِسُنَّتِي وَسَيَقُومُ فِيهِمْ رِجَالٌ قُلُوبُهُمْ قُلُوبُ الشَّيَاطِينِ فِي جُثْمَانِ إِنْسٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَدْرَكْتُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ تَسْمَعُ وَتُطِيعُ لِلْأَمِيرِ وَإِنْ ضُرِبَ ظَهْرُكَ وَأُخِذَ مَالُكَ فَاسْمَعْ وَأَطِعْ

Translation: Huzaifah ibn al-Yaman said: I said (to the prophet): “O Messenger of Allah, we were in evil times, then Allah brought us with good we are in now. Then will there be evil after this good?” He replied: “Yes.” I said: “Will there be good after this evil?” He said: “Yes.” So I said: “Will there be evil after this good?” He said: “Yes.” I said: “How?” He replied: “There will come after me Rulers who do not follow my guidance, and do not follow my sunnah. There will be among them people whose hearts are the hearts of satan in the body of men.” I said: “What shall I do, O Messenger of Allah, if I reach it?” He replied: “Listen and obey your ruler, even if your back is beaten, and your wealth is taken (oppressively), so listen and obey!”

[Sahih Muslim]

Sixth, he emphasised the severity of fleeing from a battle (Jihad). This is military discipline, because fleeing will be seen as defeat and will decrease the morale of the army. However, tactical retreat is a different matter, when regrouing is required under the instruction of the commander.

Seventh, he emphasised the importance of taking care of one’s family, by spending of his wealth on them, and

Eighth, not loosen the grip of control over them, and

Nineth, making them fear and aware of Allah.

Sahabah vs. Khawarij

أخبرنا إسماعيل بن أحمد نا محمد بن هبة الله الطبري نا محمد بن الحسين بن الفضل نا عبد الله بن جعفر بن درستويه نا يعقوب بن سفيان ثني موسى بن مسعود ثنا عكرمة بن عمار عن سماك بن رميل قال قال عبد الله بن عباس إنه لما إعتزلت الخوارج دخلوا دارا وهم ستة آلاف وأجمعوا على أن يخرجوا على علي بن أبي طالب فكان لا يزال يجيء إنسان فيقول يا أمير المؤمنين إن القوم خارجون عليك فيقول دعوهم فإني لا أقاتلهم حتى يقاتلوني وسوف يفعلون

Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas said: When the Khawarij broke away, about 6000 of them gathered at a place, and agreed to revolt against Ali ibn Abi Talib. Meanwhile everyone who came to Ali informed of the group that revolted. However, he told them: “Leave them, I will not attack them until they attack me and they would surely do so.”

 فلما كان ذات يوم أتيته صلاة الظهر فقلت له يا أمير المؤمنين أبرد بالصلاة لعلي أدخل على هؤلاء القوم فأكلمهم فقال إني أخاف عليك فقلت كلا وكنت رجلا حسن الخلق لا أؤذي أحدا فأذن لي فلبست حلة من أحسن ما يكون من اليمن وترجلت فدخلت عليهم نصف النهار

One day I came to Ali before Dhuhr and said to him: “O Leader of the Believers, may the salat sooth you. Perhaps I should visit the rebels and speak to them.” He replied: “I fear for you.” I assured him: “No, I’m a man known for good character who will not hurt anyone.” So he allowed me. I dressed up with my best Yemeni clothes and sandals, then I went to visit them at mid-day.

 فدخلت على قوم لم أر قط أشد منهم إجتهادا جباههم قرحة من السجود وأياديهم كأنها ثفن الإبل وعليهم قمص مرحضة مشمرين مسهمة وجوههم من السهر فسلمت عليهم فقالوا مرحبا بابن عباس ما جاء بك

When I arrived, I found people whose devotion in prayer the like of which I had never seen. Their foreheads scarred from continuous and prolonged prostrations, their palms were calloused like the knees of camels. Their clothes were washed and their faces lined from staying awake all night. I greeted them, they replied: “Welcome Ibn Abbas, what has brought you here?”

 فقلت أتيتكم من عند المهاجرين والأنصار ومن عند صهر رسول الله وعليهم نزل القرآن وهم أعلم بتأويله منكم فقالت طائفة منهم لا تخاصموا قريشا فإن الله عز وجل يقول بل هم قوم خصمون فقال إثنان أو ثلاثة لنكلمنه فقلت هاتوا ما نقمتم على صهر رسول الله والمهاجرين والأنصار وعليهم نزل القرآن وليس فيكم منهم أحد وهو أعلم بتأويله

I replied: “I have come from the Muhajirun, the Ansar and the prophet’s son in law, among whom the Quran was revealed and they know its interpretation better than you do.” Some of them refused to debate with me because I was a Quraishite, and Allah said: “Rather, they are an argumentative people.” However, two or three of them said : “We will surely speak to him!” So I said: “Tell me what you have against Rasulullah’s son in law, the Muhajirun and the Ansar among whom the Quran was revealed, and none of you was among them, and he knows better of its interpretation.

 قالوا ثلاثا قلت هاتوا قالوا أما أحداهن فانه حكم الرجال في أمر الله وقد قال الله عز وجل إن الحكم إلا لله فما شأن الرجال والحكم بعد قول الله عز وجل فقلت هذه واحدة وماذا قالوا وأما الثانية فانه قاتل وقتل ولم يسب ولم يغنم فإن كانوا مؤمنين فلم حل لنا قتالهم وقتلهم ولم يحل لنا سبيهم قلت وما الثالثة قالوا فإنه محا عن نفسه أمير المؤمنين فإنه إن لم يكن أمير المؤمنين فانه لأمير الكافرين قلت هل عندكم غير هذا قالوا كفانا هذا

They replied: “There are three points of contention.” I said: “Tell me!” They said: “First, that Ali made men judges in Allah’s affair even though Allah, Most Great and Glorious, has said: Judgment belongs only to Allah. So what value are men and their decisions after Allah’s statement?” I said: “That’s one, and what else?” They replied: “Secondly, Ali fought and killed his enemies, yet did not take any captives nor spoils of war. If it was because the enemy were believers, why was it permissible for us to fight and kill them and not make them captives?” I said: “What is the third?” They replied: “He erased the title Amir al-Mu’minin (Leader of the Believers) from himself. If he is not Amir al-Mu’minin then surely he must be Amir al-Kafirin (Leader of the disbelievers).” I asked: “Do you have anything else?” They replied: “These are sufficient.”

 قلت لهم أما قولكم حكم لرجال في أمر الله أنا أقرأ عليكم في كتاب الله ما ينقض هذا فاذا نقض قولكم أترجعون قالوا نعم قلت فإن الله قد صير من حكمه إلى الرجال في ربع درهم ثمن أرنب وتلى هذه الآية لا تقتلوا الصيد وأنتم حرم إلى آخر الآية وفي المرأة وزوجها وإن خفتم شقاق بينهما فابعثوا حكما من أهله وحكما من أهلها إلى آخر الآية فنشدتكم بالله هل تعلمون حكم الرجال في إصلاح ذات بينهم وفي حقن دمائهم أفضل أم حكمهم في أرنب وبضع امرأة فأيهما ترون أفضل قالوا بل هذه قلت خرجت من هذه قالوا نعم

I said: “As for your statement concerning men’s judgment in Allah’s affair, I will recite for you from Allah’s book something which will refute your statement. But if I do so, will you retract your position?” They replied affirmatively. I said: “Verily Allah has relegated to men an area of His judgment whose value is a mere four dirhams, the price of a rabbit, in the verse: O Believers, do not kill a hunting prey while in a state of Ihram. If any of you does so intentionally, the compensation is the sacrifice of a domestic animal similar to it near the Ka’bah according to the judgment of two just men from among you. Also he relegated to men an area of his judgment concerning a woman and her husband in the verse: If you fear discord between them, appoint a judge from his family and one from hers to arbitrate. If they wish reconciliation, Allah will make it happen between them. For Allah is all-Knowing, whose expertise knows no bounds. I implore you, by Allah! Is man’s judgment to reconcile what is between themselves and prevent the spilling of blood more excellent than man’s judgment over a rabbit and a woman’s family rights and obligations or not? Which of them is more important?” They replied the arbitration was. I asked them if they would retract their objection to Ali’s agreement to arbitration and they agreed.

 قلت وأما قولكم قاتل ولم يسب ولم يغنم فتسبون أمكم عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها فوالله لئن قلتم ليست بأمنا لقد خرجتم من الإسلام ووالله لئن قلتم لنسبينها ونستحل منها ما نستحل من غيرها لقد خرجتم من الإسلام فأنتم بين ضلالتين لأن الله عز وجل قال النبي أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم وأزواجه أمهاتهم أخرجت من هذه قالوا نعم

I said: “As for your statement concerning Ali’s fighting without taking captives or spoils of war, it means that you would have taken your mother, ‘Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, as a captive. By Allah, if you say that she is not your mother, you have left Islam. And, by Allah, if you say that you would have made her a captive and made permissible what is permissible in the case of others (ie. sex) you have left Islam. You are caught between two grave errors from Allah, the Most Great Glorious has said: The prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are their mothers. Will you retract from this point?” They replied: “Yes!”

 قلت وأما قولكم محا عن نفسه أمير المؤمنين فأنا آيتكم بمن ترضون أن النبي يوم الحديبية صالح المشركين أبا سفيان بن حرب وسهيل بن عمرو فقال لعلي رضي الله عنه أكتب لهم كتابا فكتب لهم علي هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد رسول الله فقال المشركون والله ما نعلم انك رسول الله لو نعلم انك رسول الله ما قاتلناك فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم اللهم إنك تعلم أني رسول الله امح يا علي اكتب هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد بن عبد الله فوالله لرسول الله خير من علي وقد محا نفسه قال فرجع منهم ألفان وخرج سائرهم فقتلوا

Then I said: “As for your statement concerning his erasing the title Amir al-Mu’minin, I will give you a similar example concerning someone with whom you are pleased. On the day of Hudaibiyah, the prophet made a treaty with the musyrikin represented by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and Suhail ibn ‘Amr. He told Ali to put it in writing for them so Ali wrote: These are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad, Rasulullah. However, the musyrikin objected saying: “By Allah, we do not know you to be a Rasulullah, for if we did know you to be so, we would not have fought you.” The prophet then said: “O Allah, you know that I am Rasulullah. Erase it, O Ali and write: These are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad ibn Abdullah. By Allah, surely Rasulullah is better than Ali, and he erased a title from himself.” So, two thousand of them retracted their position while the rest of them revolted and were killed.
[Talbis Iblis by al-Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi]

My Comments: Notice that Ibn 'Abbas repeated at the start of his debate about the sahabah (companions) of the prophet having the better understanding of the religion. You can see the similarity with this hadith:

 «إِنَّ الْيَهُودَ افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى إِحْدَى وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَإِنَّ النَّصَارَى افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَسَتَفْتَرِقُ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةُ عَلَى ثَلَاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، كُلُّهَا فِي النَّارِ إِلَّا فِرْقَةً وَاحِدَة»
(Verily, the Jews split into seventy-one sects, and the Christians split into seventy-two sects, and this nation (of Muslims) will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the Fire except one sect.) They (the Companions) said, "Who are they (the Saved Sect), O Messenger of Allah'' He said,

«مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي»
(The sect that is upon what my Companions and I are upon.)

Al-Hakim recorded this narration in his Mustadrak with this additional wording. Again, this confirms the ACID TEST or BENCHMARK, that al-Quran and Sunnah has to be understood correctly, and no one understood better than the companions. And similarly the two generations that come after the companions because they were praised by the Hadith of the prophet:

"The best of generation is my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.”
[Agreed upon]

So, three generations of muslims were praised by Allah and His Messenger, and surely they were not praised for being physically attractive, or being hardworking, or anything else but their understanding and practice of the religion they inherited from the prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).