عن أم الدرداء ، عن أبي الدرداء قال : أوصاني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بتسع : لا تشرك بالله شيئا ؛ وإن قطعت أو حرقت ، ولا تتركن الصلاة المكتوبة متعمدا ، ومن تركها متعمدا برئت منه الذمة ، ولا تشربن الخمر ، فإنها مفتاح كل شر ، وأطع والديك ، وإن أمراك أن تخرج من دنياك فاخرج لهما ، ولا تنازعن ولاة الأمر وإن رأيت أنك أنت ، ولا تفرر من الزحف ، وإن هلكت وفر أصحابك ، وأنفق من طولك على أهلك ، ولا ترفع عصاك عن أهلك ، وأخفهم في الله عز وجل
Translation: Umm ad-Darda narrated from Abu ad-Darda, who said: The messenger (peace and blessings upon him) gave me nine pieces of advice:
1. Do not associate anything with Allah, even if you are tortured with cuts and burns.
2. Do not intentionally miss a prayer (as-salat), for those who intentionally miss a prayer will be on their own.
3. Never drink wine, for it is the key to all evil.
4. Obey your parents, even if they order you to leave your world, leave it for their sake.
5. Do not dispute with the authorities, even if you think that you are right (and they are wrong).
6. Do not run away from battle, even if you are faced with certain death and all of your companions have fled.
7. Spend from your wealth on your family.
8. Do not hold back your stick against them, and
9. Make them fear of Allah.
[Reported by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (no. 18). The hadith is hasan, see al-Irwa by al-Albani]
Brief Explanation: The prophet combined seven items in his advice, showing the priorities in his da’wah.
First, he emphasised the importance of Tawheed, because his da’wah is about saving people from the Fire. Tawheed is the prerequisite to enter Paradise, hence whoever dies upon Tawheed will eventually enter Paradise, even if he was to be punished for his sins first. This is the precise reason, why da’wah must always start with Tawheed and once understood, the next important topic may be addressed ALONG WITH TAWHEED. Tawheed should always be emphasised and renewed. This is safeguarding the Rights of Allah.
Second, he emphasised the importance of the obligatory prayers. This will be the first action to be asked about on the Day of Judgment, and if it is good, then all others will be good, and if it is bad, then all others will be likewise. This is safeguarding that which will make one enter Paradise.
Third, he emphasised the evil of wine (or any other intoxicating food) to safeguard the minds. Its hazard to health and safety outweighs the benefits that may be gained from it. Hence, Islam made it unlawful for all.
Fourth, he emphasised the importance of obeying one’s parents. They are the closest of relatives. Obedience is in all matters, except when they order to disobey Allah.
Fifth, he emphasised the importance of obeying the ruler, even if you think they are wrong in oppressing you. In another narration:
مَنْ رَأَى مِنْ أَمِيرِهِ شَيْئًا يَكْرَهُهُ فَلْيَصْبِرْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ فَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ شِبْرًا فَمَاتَ إِلَّا مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً
Translation: “Whoever sees in his ruler something he dislikes, then he should be patient, verily whoever breaks away from the Jama’ah (Muslim Nation) the span of a hand, then dies, except that he died the death of the time of ignorance (Jahiliyah).”
قَالَ حُذَيْفَةُ بْنُ الْيَمَانِ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا كُنَّا بِشَرٍّ فَجَاءَ اللَّهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَنَحْنُ فِيهِ فَهَلْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ هَذَا الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ هَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرِّ خَيْرٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ قَالَ يَكُونُ بَعْدِي أَئِمَّةٌ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ بِهُدَايَ وَلَا يَسْتَنُّونَ بِسُنَّتِي وَسَيَقُومُ فِيهِمْ رِجَالٌ قُلُوبُهُمْ قُلُوبُ الشَّيَاطِينِ فِي جُثْمَانِ إِنْسٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَدْرَكْتُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ تَسْمَعُ وَتُطِيعُ لِلْأَمِيرِ وَإِنْ ضُرِبَ ظَهْرُكَ وَأُخِذَ مَالُكَ فَاسْمَعْ وَأَطِعْ
Translation: Huzaifah ibn al-Yaman said: I said (to the prophet): “O Messenger of Allah, we were in evil times, then Allah brought us with good we are in now. Then will there be evil after this good?” He replied: “Yes.” I said: “Will there be good after this evil?” He said: “Yes.” So I said: “Will there be evil after this good?” He said: “Yes.” I said: “How?” He replied: “There will come after me Rulers who do not follow my guidance, and do not follow my sunnah. There will be among them people whose hearts are the hearts of satan in the body of men.” I said: “What shall I do, O Messenger of Allah, if I reach it?” He replied: “Listen and obey your ruler, even if your back is beaten, and your wealth is taken (oppressively), so listen and obey!”
Sixth, he emphasised the severity of fleeing from a battle (Jihad). This is military discipline, because fleeing will be seen as defeat and will decrease the morale of the army. However, tactical retreat is a different matter, when regrouing is required under the instruction of the commander.
Seventh, he emphasised the importance of taking care of one’s family, by spending of his wealth on them, and
Eighth, not loosen the grip of control over them, and
Nineth, making them fear and aware of Allah.