Hadith Encyclopedia



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Monday, August 30, 2010

In defence of Hadith (3)

The following are my comments on the comments by “anonymous” to my previous article "In defense of Hadith":


“Regarding some verses in the Kor'an that tell us about the direction of the original kiblat (Jerusalem) it is true that the city is not mention in the Kor'an but this does not change anything regarding our akidah. You can say that this is an ayat Mutashabiha.”


This is a grave mistake! How can you say it is “ayat Mutashbiha” when the companions knew exactly what the verse means and refers to?


The main point of the verse is that there was another mode of revelation, which is through the prophet’s words hence Allah did not mention it.


“It does not make any difference to you but to know it is also very useful as a historical event, thus as you said the need for the hadith. Actually this is historical and there are many more historical things during the time of the Prophet and others before him are not mention in the hadiths.”

It is true that not all details of historical events are available, but the relevant and important details must have been preserved in hadith! Why? Because these details help muslims to understand Quran and Islam! Don’t you trust in Allah that He will do so?


“Again you said about the news that was given to our Prophet that was not mentioned in the Kor'an. This is just because Allah intentionally do not want us to know and maybe this is not important to our akidah or amal or our salvation to Allah, again it does not change a thing. But if you subtitute the ayat in the Kor'an or try to understand them through the light of other than Kor'an itself then you might easily get duped by Satan who 'Inspire fancy words inorder to deceive'-(Kor'an).”

This is your assumption. Knowledge of fine details will help in understand the teachings of Islam, hence in Aqidah and/or Amal. If you notice, there are many verses in the Quran giving the impression it is in response to an event, and the event is not mentioned in the Quran. How can you understand these verses without knowing the events behind the revelation of the verses?


Example:

“And they asked you concerning menstruation? Say: It is harm so stay away from women during menstruation. And don’t go near to them until they are become pure. So when they purify themselves so approach them from whence Allah has commanded. Verily Allah loves those who are repentant and purifies themselves.” [2:222]


What does this verse means? When the women have menstruation, stay away from them? Or it means one of them has to move out of the house for a while? Or it means don’t have sexual intercourse with them only? If you specify it to sexual intercourse, someone might tell you that you have specified a general verse of the Quran, and specifying it requires proof!


“First of all you must trust in Allah. Allah loves those who trust Him. When He says through His Messenger that this Kor'an is 'fully datailed' that just means so!! it must be fully detailed. But many people question the Words of Allah. Ofcourse you do not find many many things in the Kor'an but when Allah says that it is fully detailed that means regarding our amal and our salvation. They are fully detailed and you do not need someone to add anything any more.”


Trust in Allah we do, but I do not trust your understanding! The Quran is fully detailed because it considers the example of the prophet and his instructions as part of the details for Quran! Think about it!


Allah says “Quran is fully detailed”.

Allah says: “Obey Allah.”

Allah also says: “Obeying the Prophet is like obeying Allah.”

Allah also says: “Verily in the Messenger is a good example…”


Allah also says: “Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written in the Taurat and Injil he commands them to the good and forbids them from the evil, he MAKES LAWFUL the good (food and others) and MAKES UNLAWFUL the evil (food and others), he releases them from their heavy burdens and bindings that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the light (Quran) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.” [7:157]


"Just like that the rituals of the salat are not mentioned in the Kor'an in detailed but they are mentioned in general like ,standing, bowing, postrating. But also you cannot find the same in the hadith book!! In the hadith you can find something like someone comes to the Prophet and asked him how to pray and the Prophet asked him to 'pray like I pray'."


Anyone in a right frame of mind will realize that the Quranic verses that mention standing, bowing and prostrating just to mention certain characteristics of salat, and not to detail the act of worship called “salat”.


The reader will expect an explanation of how its done, and sure enough it can be found in the books of hadith!


Try reading the book “Prophet’s prayer described from takbir to taslim” (Sifat Salat an-Nabi) by Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani and you will find details for every movement, position and order taken from all the books of hadith, AND VERIFIED as authentic by this leading scholar of hadith.


“But how? Infact the Kor'an tells us that Islam is the religion Ibrahim 'millat Ibrahim' and that Muhammad was the follower of Ibrahim and that when Ibrahim together with Ismail set the foundation of the Kaabah they prayed to God to 'teach us the rituals of our religion'. Thus Ibrahim taught his children and other believers regarding the practice of the religion of Islam.”


Here, in fact, you are arguing to confirm that hadith is true! This is precisely what the companions of the prophet did! They learnt the details, some by observation, some by the statements of the prophet, some by the corrections done by the prophet, etc. These trustworthy companions then taught their students through quoting, describing, or other means, just like how the prophet did it! Then these trustworthy students of the companions taught their students from the next generation. And this continued generation after generation. Allah, in fulfilling His promise, inspired some brilliantly intelligent muslims to gather these narrations as they heard them, and recorded the hadiths in their compilation of hadith. Some decided to only record authentic narrations, while others simply collected and compiled. No doubt many narrations can be fabricated or mistaken, as humans, so Allah inspired some of these intelligent scholars on how to differentiate between them. The result is the science of hadith!


'Abdullah b. al-Mubarak (d. 181 AH), one of the illustrious teachers of Imam al-Bukhari, said:
"The isnad (chain of narration) is part of the religion: had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to would have said whatever he liked." [Sahih Muslim]


Example: “Hadith Sahih” has four conditions:

  1. Narrated by trustworthy narrators all throughout the chain of narrations
  2. Narrated by narrators with strong memory all throughout the chain of narrations
  3. Does not contradict the Quran or other more authentic narrations
  4. There is no hidden defect


And there are numerous books containing the status of all narrators of hadith. If anyone unknown is found in a hadith, it will be considered weak.


Anyone known to be a liar, then the hadith will be considered fabricated. And so on.


And this science is one of the most difficult science of Islamic knowledge! And it is, by far, more stringent then the books of history, sirah and anything in this world, past and present! One who goes deep into this knowledge will realize that this is one of the miracles of Islam.


“Infact during the space or gap between the time of our Prophet to the time of Muslim or Bukhari there were not written hadiths and how do the Muslims pray? The comapanions of the Prophet how did they pray? They must have followed the Prophet!! It does not need someone to tell us that the Prophet teach you how to pray in the hadiths!! There were no hadiths only the Kor'an at that time!! Then the 'falsifiers' will tell you that although there were not written but they were there somewhere!!”


On the contrary, what you just described is what’s called hadith. There existed many falsifiers of hadith, but all praises to Allah, He has raised in this ummah great scholars who were able to methodically filter the false hadiths. I admit, we have a problem of muslims who are stubborn and want to stick to the hadiths which have been proven to be false by the scholars. But, there are muslims who are aware of this problem, and have continuously, over the years, striven to educate the ummah regarding this problems.


“The trouble with most of the Muslims today is that we take the explanations of some ulamas as a source of law not the Kor'an. This the computer age and we can learn so much from the Kor'an. Offcourse to start with, you must have someone who 'knows' to show you the way forward and then you 'choose the best'(KOr'an).”

I agree with you about this problem. The scholars (ulama) are not the source of law! Source of Islamic law is the Quran and Sunnah, according to the correct understanding based on the best generations of muslims, and the scholars who follow their method!


"We all want Allah to admit us into His Paradise!! I believe that we are all sincere and striving for the TRUTH. But just when you 'deserted the Koran'25:30 then you will miss out from the Grace of Allah and if you fail to follow His Words and nourish your souls through worshipping Him alone with any shirik you fall out from His Kingdom just as Satan did."


No doubt, we are sincere! As I explained earlier, the reference to Quran includes its explanation, the hadith!


"The Kor'an teaches us that trusting other than the Words of Allah is a form of idol-worship."

Yes! But the assumption that hadith is also not to be trusted is also wrong, because to understand the Quran, prophet’s explanation, example must be preserved, ie. hadith!


"The trouble here is again you say that the words of the Prophet (other than the Kor'an) are also the words of God!! This is the greatest misunderstanding among the Muslim Ummah today."

Did I say words of the prophet as the words of God? Does anyone muslim say so? Words of the prophet and his actions are all based on revelation revealed to him. But the words are not words of God like the Quran. Prophet’s words are his own words but inspired by revelation, and not from his own desires. In other words, nothing false comes out of the prophet’s mouth, and his actions are in compliance with revelation or inspiration from Allah. If one denies this, then prophet has no duty except to “handover” the Quran to mankind, because any of his words and actions cannot be trusted. No, the prophet’s actions, words were inspired hence part of the guidance of the Quran, to demonstrate the Quran as well as to instruct details, even those not mentioned in the Quran!


"We see throughout the Kor'an that Allah tell the Messenger that his duty is ONLY TO DELIVER THE KORAN. This is not like a postman as you said. Muhammad was the Messenger of Allah...Allahu Akbar!!!"


I beg to differ with you! The duty of the Messenger is not only to deliver, because that is precisely the duty of a “postman”. Think about it! Rather, among the duties of the Messenger are to deliver the Quran, to explain the Quran through his words, actions and tacit approval, and he had the duty to lead the muslim nation as a leader, and also “he commands them to the good and forbids them from the evil, he MAKES LAWFUL the good (food and others) and MAKES UNLAWFUL the evil (food and others), he releases them from their heavy burdens and bindings that were upon them.” [7:157]


"Please use your own judgment and not others. If they fail the test it is not your responsibility. You are responsible for your own fate (Kor'an)."


I advise you to hear your own advice. You have misunderstood the Quran. You have understood the Quran not as it was revealed. You will not be able to understand the Quran without the authentic hadith and the understanding of the best of generations.


I’ll give you an final example:


“Verily Allah and His Angels perform salat upon the prophet. O you who believe! Perform Salat upon the prophet and send salams to him.” [33:56]


The word used in this verse is “Salat”. What is meant by salat in this verse? Does it mean the normal salat that muslims do 5 times a day? Does it mean the original Arabic word “salat” meaning making doa, hence the meaning will be Allah and Angel perform doa on the prophet? Does it mean saying the salutations like the prophet taught us (and you don’t know this because you don’t believe in hadith), even then how can Allah does that to the prophet? So, do you then say this verse is ayat mutashabiha? Then we have a book of guidance we can hardly understand, if we deny the role of hadith.

In defence of Hadith (2)

I would like to take this opportunity to stress to those who reject hadith as a source of guidance together with al-Quran:


Be mindful that your rejection tantamounts to kufr of Allah’s religion, al-Quran and the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). It is not a small matter for the following reasons:


  • Rejection of hadith is going against the way of the true believers, starting with the companions, then the next generation, and then the next generation, which have been confirmed to be the best of people, by the Quran and Hadith!


“And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has been made clear to him, and follow OTHER THAN THE BELIEVERS WAY, We will leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Hell. What an evil abode!” [4:115]


Prophet Muhammad said in a hadith which was narrated by many companions: “The best of people is my generation, then those who come after, then those who come after.” [Hadith Mutawatir]


Quran, by itself, has many general verses and people can interpret, pick and mix as they wish to support their views, which will lead to so many understanding and versions of Islam. The only way to filter out the wrong understanding and wrong versions of Islam is to ask the following question:


“Did the best of people, starting from the companions of the prophet and the following two generations understand the Quran and Hadith the way you understand?”


Rather, they were the people who narrated the hadith as a source of revealed guidance together with the Quran!


  • Rejection of hadith is going against the ijma’ (consensus) of the ummah


“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey His Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you differ in anything then return it to Allah and the Messenger. That is better and most suitable for final determination.” [4:59]


So, this verse tells us to obey Allah (Quran) and His Messenger (Hadith) and those in authority (scholars and rulers, when they follow Quran and Hadith). BUT, if you differ, compare the issue back to Quran and Hadith.


This means, if the muslim ummah agree on something, then this is binding consensus. And the consensus of the Ummah at the time of the best of people is that hadith is a source of revealed guidance together with the Quran.


  • Rejection of hadith is going against the Quran


“Do you believe in part of the Book (Quran) and disbelieve (kufr) in part (of it)?” [2:85]


And the Quran mentions specifically:


“Whoever obeys the Messenger then indeed he has obeyed Allah.” [4:80]


This is clear indication that Prophet Muhammad also gives instructions and guidance from revelation, together with the Quran!


“And he does not speak out of his own desire. Verily it is none other than revelation revealed (to him).” [53:3-4]


Hence, if the prophet conveyed two types of revelation, Quran and his words and actions as detailed implementation of the Quran, both revelation must, by necessity, be preserved!

Quran preserved through mutawatir transmission.

Hadith / Sunnah preserved through narrations of trustworthy scholars to the next generation and so on.


The assumption that all hadith are false and fabricated is false! There is nowhere in the world, past and present, that has a system of narration and ways of verification of these narrations like in Islam! Those who study the science of hadith with open mind can immediately spot the excellence of this science, and its effectiveness.


Of course, anyone can pick out a hadith and criticize, just as one can do for the Quran! The key is taking all the texts of Quran and Hadith on a certain issue and then one can get the correct understanding as meant by Allah and His Messenger. Of course, this will require scholarly effort, hence the reliance in scholars to understand Islam from Quran and Hadith.


  • Rejection of Hadith is rejection of the explanation of the Quran from Allah


“Don’t move your tongue with it (Quran) to hasten it. Verily it is Our duty that it is collected and recited. And when We recite (the Quran) so follow its recitation. Then it is Our duty to explain it.” [75:16-19]


Here, Allah refers to the explanation of the Quran to the prophet. This shows that if the prophet was left without explanation, surely the Quran will be misunderstood! Hence, there was the need to explain the Quran to the prophet.

If the prophet needed explanation of the Quran, then surely we need the explanation even more! How else can we receive this explanation if it is not through the narrations from and regarding the prophet?! And this will require the preservation of the hadith so that we can understand the Quran. Of course, muslims have to be extra careful regarding the hadith, and verification method is available through the meticulous and effective science of hadith.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

In defence of Hadith

Today, I received a call from a dear friend that there are some “muslims” arguing that menstruating muslim women can fast in the month of Ramadan, merely referring to the Quran, and rejecting all narrations from the prophet with the notion that prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) was only a postman, and did not teach anything other than the Quran.

The real problem to solve is not the correct ruling regarding menstruating women fasting in Ramadan or not. Although, that can be answered using the Quran itself, since Allah said: “Whoever is ill and on a journey then (replace the missed day) on other days.” [2:185] The verse covers the menstruating women with their menses (illness). In another verse in [2:222] mentions “They ask you concerning the menstruation. Say: It is harm so stay away from them during menstruation.” Logically, if being ill is an excuse for not fasting, then menstruation where women lose lots of blood is more befitting of this ruling. Note that there is no verse preventing intercourse with an ill woman.

Of course, if the hadith is referred to, we will get the correct understanding straight away on this issue.

But, they are not in need of this answer since their real “sickness” is rejection of hadith! They failed to understand Quran correctly because they have omitted the guidelines to understanding the Quran, and the example, ie. the prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

Because Allah said: “And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) a reminder that you may explain clearly to the people that which was sent down to them.” [16:44]

The reminder is the explanation of the Quran through the prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

The following are some proofs that muslims must take from the hadith to understand Islam fully:

Many verses commanding obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

Example:

“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those of you with authority. And if you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if you (truly) believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and most suitable for final determination.” [4:59]

  • If we accept that prophet Muhammad was merely a postman, that there is no reason to mention “obey the Messenger” since a postman has no authority!
  • Allah repeated the word “obey” for “the Messenger” but not “those of you with authority” for a reason, and that is to ascertain that obedience is obligatory to Allah (Quran) and the Messenger (Hadith) while obedience to “those of you with authority” are subject to their obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
  • This verse is binding till the end of time since no time limit was set! Hence, to implement this verse, one has no choice but to believe that the hadith is binding and preserved!
  • If anyone claims that this verse is only binding during the lifetime of the prophet, and after his death only the Quran is our reference, then surely this is mockery towards Allah, whose verses are “perfected and then expounded” [11:1]

Many verses cannot be understood without hadith

Example:

“And We appointed the direction (qiblah) to which you were upon only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels.” [2:143]

  • Notice that the appointment of the previous qiblah was referred to as being in the past. But there is no verse in the Quran which commands the prophet to face Jerusalem at the beginning! This shows that there is another mode of conveyance of revelation to the prophet, which is not in the form of the Quran.
  • The only way to know what was the previous qiblah is through the hadith


“When the prophet disclosed a matter in secret to one of his wives, and she then divulged it, and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed a part of it and repudiated a part. Then when he told her of it, she said, ‘Who told you this?’ He said, ‘He told me the All-Knowing All-Acquainted.” [66:3]

  • “Allah made it known to him” – how was this done since there is no verse on it in the Quran?
  • Hence, there is another type of revelation besides the Quran.
  • And what’s this verse about? This can only be known through the hadith.


“Whether you cut down the tender palm-trees or you left them standing on their roots, it was by the permission of Allah, and in order that He might cover the rebellious transgressors with shame.” [59:5]

  • “it was by the permission of Allah” – The action was attributed to the permission of Allah, but nowhere in the Quran is such permission found?!
  • Hence, the permission was conveyed through other means of revelation.
  • Hence, the hadith must, by necessity, be preserved

The prophet also gave additional instructions, not found in the Quran

Example:

“Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written in the Taurat and Injil he commands them to the good and forbids them from the evil, he makes lawful the good (food and others) and prohibits the evil (food and others), he releases them from their heavy burdens and bindings that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the light (Quran) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.” [7:157]

  • The prophet’s duty was to tell the believers what is halal and what is haram.
  • Following the light (Quran) was also mentioned separately, hence Quran and prophet's instructions (preserve in the form of hadith) are not the same thing, but they complement each other.

Of course, there are many more verses and proofs, but what I’ve mentioned above is sufficient.


The main reason for this group’s rejection of hadith is that they find inconsistencies in the hadith, ignorant of the fact that not all hadiths are authentic! And to know what is authentic and what is not, one has to refer back to scholars of hadith who have written many works, past and present, to explain the authenticity of hadiths in the Islamic literature. The science of hadith is a very important science, but unfortunately, many muslims are ignorant of it or have failed to benefit from it. This science is so detail and meticulous that no other nation in the world, past and present, has such a method. The system of chain of narration has been the method to check the authenticity of hadith, with biographies of narrators all throughout the ages from the time of the prophet up to the collectors of hadith, like Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim and others. Even history books are not as reliable as hadith books.


The many scientific truths, prophesies and accurate facts mentioned in the authentic hadiths proves that the science of hadith is absolutely reliable!


If the Quran is true, surely it needs correct understanding! Without correct understanding, the purpose of sending the Quran is not fulfilled! Hence, by necessity, the hadith needs to also be preserved and available till the end of time!


Look at Islam as a whole system, and Quran is its manual. Just like a Quality Management System of a company, it must have a Quality Manual. But, Quality Manual only highlights the outline of the system, whereas its detail procedures (SOP – Standard Operating Procedures) are a different set of documents, with greater details and guidelines!


So, in the case of the religion of Islam, the Quran is its manual. And the detail procedures are the SOP (Sunnah Of Prophet Muhammad), in other words, the hadith!

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Setelah lebih seminggu berpuasa... Ada peningkatan?

Setelah lebih seminggu kita berpuasa di dalam bulan Ramadan, bulan yang mulia ini. Soalan yang kita patut tanya diri kita sendiri:

Ada peningkatan iman ke tidak?

Ramadan telah dijadikan suatu bulan yang Allah sediakan untuk CRASH COURSE bertajuk IMAN DAN TAQWA. Oleh itu ramai yang menyebutkan Ramadan sebagai madrasah Ramadan. Memang benar! Lihatlah apa yang Allah sediakan untuk para "penuntut" yang masuk ke dalam CRASH COURSE ini:

a. Dibuka semua pintu syurga
b. Ditutup semua pintu neraka
c. Dirantai syaitan-syaitan

Ini keadaan yang terbaik untuk para "penuntut" berubah dan meningkat dari segi Iman!

Tetapi bukan itu sahaja, malah Allah mewajibkan pula semua umat Islam berpuasa, tidak seperti bulan-bulan lain. Betapa beratnya bagi kita untuk berpuasa sunat di bulan-bulan lain, tetapi di bulan Ramadan, semua orang sama, kecuali sebahagian wanita, orang-orang sakit dan orang-orang tua. Dan semua umat Islam menambahkan amalan pula di bulan Ramadan, lebih-lebih lagi untuk solat Tarawih dan membaca al-Quran!

Segala pujian bagi Allah, yang telah permudahkan bagi kita untuk membersihkan jiwa, meningkatkan iman dan mendekatkan diri kepada Allah pada bulan Ramadan.

Saya ulangi sekali lagi soalan penting ini:

Ada peningkatan iman ke tidak?

Sekiranya kita tidak merasakan apa-apa perubahan, maka rugilah kita! Dan lebih kita takuti, sekiranya ianya menjadi sebab kita dihumban ke Neraka.

Mengapa?

Nabi bersabda: "Solat 5 waktu; Jumaat ke Jumaat; dan Ramadan ke Ramadan, adalah kaffarah di antara nya selagi ditinggal dosa-dosa besar."
[Sahih Muslim]

Allah, Yang Maha Pengasih, lagi Maha Penyayang, telah menyediakan keadaan-keadaan bagi setiap muslim untuk membersihkan jiwanya daripada noda dosa-dosa, sekaligus meningkatkan Iman dengannya.

Sesiapa yang dapat memanfaatkan dan menyempurnakan solat 5 waktu, maka sudah pasti dia mempunyai Iman yang tinggi, bersih daripada dosa-dosa kecil dan besar!

Sekiranya tidak, Allah beri peluang lagi bagi sesiapa yang memanfaatkan hari Jumaat untuk membersihkan jiwanya dan meningkatkan Imannya, kerana semua umat Islam (lelaki) diwajibkan solat Jumaat, mendengar Khutbah dan ada masa berdoa yang mustajab di saat terakhir waktu Asar.

Sekiranya tidak, Allah tetap membuka pelaung TERAKHIR bagi umat Islam untuk membersihkan jiwa mereka dan meningkatkan Iman, dengan suasana yang sangat cocok untuk meningkatkan Iman yang tidak ada pada waktu lain, iaitu pintu syurga dibuka, pintu neraka ditutup dan syaitan dibelenggu!

Sekiranya tidak....

Fikirlah... dan ambillah kesempatan ini... Ubah perangai dan sikap...

Sabda Rasululah (sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam) :

"Sesiapa yang berpuasa bulan Ramadan, (bertitik tolak daripada) Iman dan mengharapkan (ganjaran daripada Allah), akan diampuni dosa-dosanya yang lepas."
[Sahih - Abu Daud, Tirmizhi dan lain-lain]

Saturday, August 14, 2010

Sejauh mana ketaatan kepada Pemerintah?

Marilah kita tadabbur ayat-ayat Allah dalam surah an-Nisaa yang berkaitan dengan perkara ini yang merupakan sebahagian daripada dasar-dasar pemerintahan dalam Islam:

Firman Allah: “Sesungguhnya Allah menyuruh kamu menyampaikan amanah kepada yang berhak menerimanya, dan (menyuruh kamu) apabila menetapkan hukum di antara manusia supaya kamu menetapkan dengan adil. Sesungguhnya Allah memberi pengajaran yang sebaik-baiknya kepadamu. Sesungguhnya Allah adalah Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Melihat.” [an-Nisaa: 58]

Ayat ini umum tentang semua jenis amanah, dan termasuk di dalamnya amanah dalam memberikan pemerintahan sesuatu negara kepada yang berhak menerimanya. Begitu juga, sesiapa sahaja yang memerintah sesebuah negara mestilah menyampaikan amanah kepada yang berhak menerimanya dan berlaku adil.

Firman Allah: “Wahai orang-orang yang beriman, taatilah Allah dan taatilah RasulNya, dan ulil amri di antara kamu. Kemudian jika kamu berlainan pendapat tentang sesuatu, maka kembalilah ia kepada Allah (al-Quran) dan Rasul (Sunnahnya), jika kamu benar-benar beriman kepada Allah dan Hari Kemudian. Yang demikian itu lebih utama (bagimu) dan lebih baik akibatnya.” [an-Nisaa: 59]

Kemudian Allah meneruskan dengan ayat ini, memerintahkan agar Allah dan RasulNya ditaati dalam semua suruhan dan tegahan. Dan di dalam ayat ini, disebut ulul-amri yang bermaksud:

1. Ulama’

2. Hukama’ (para pemerintah)

Digugurkan perkataan “taat” sebelum perkataan “ulul-amri” di dalam ayat sekaligus mengisyaratkan bahawa ketaatan kepada kedua-duanya, iaitu ulama dan hukama, berkait rapat dengan ketaatan kepada Allah dan RasulNya. Oleh itu, jika mereka menyuruh kepada maksiat yang jelas melanggar ketaatan kepada Allah dan RasulNya, maka ketaatan kepada “ulul-amri” itu gugur.

Soalan: Adakah gugur ketaatan kepada “ulul-amri” secara mutlak atau khusus kepada maksiat yang berkenaan sahaja dan ketaatan dalam perkara-perkara maaruf lain kekal?

Kata Shaikh Abdur-Rahman as-Sa’di di dalam tafsirnya: “Manakala ulul-amri maka syarat perintah agar mereka ditaati adalah ianya bukan suatu maksiat.” [Taysir al-Karim al-Rahman fi Tafsir Kalam al-Mannan ms. 148]

Maksudnya, gugur ketaatan kepada mereka khusus dengan maksiat yang berkenaan, tidak secara mutlak.

Firman Allah: “Apakah kamu tidak memperhatikan orang-orang yang mengaku dirinya telah beriman kepada apa yang diturunkan kepadamu dan kepada apa yang diturunkan sebelum kamu? Mereka hendak berhakim kepada taghut , padahal mereka telah diperintah mengingkari taghut itu. Dan syaitan bermaksud menyesatkan mereka (dengan) penyesatan yang sejauh-jauhnya.” [an-Nisaa: 60]

Ayat ini dan seterusnya adalah tentang orang-orang munafik yang tidak merujuk kepada Allah dan RasulNya, malah berhakimkan taghut. Kata Shaikh as-Sa’di di dalam tafsirnya tentang taghut: “Dan ianya adalah setiap orang yang menetapkan hukum dengan selain syariat Allah, maka itulah dia taghut.” Sudah pastinya ini adalah suatu kesesatan yang merupakan matlamat syaitan!

FirmanNya lagi: “Apabila dikatakan kepada mereka: ‘Marilah kamu (tunduk) kepada hukum yang Allah telah turunkan dan kepada hukum Rasul’, nescaya kamu lihat orang-orang munafik menghalangi (manusia) dengan sekuat-sekuatnya dari (mendekati) kamu.” [an-Nisaa: 61]

Inilah perbuatan orang-orang munafik, menghalang manusia daripada kembali kepada kebenaran.

FirmanNya lagi: “Maka bagaimanakah halnya apabila mereka ditimpa sesuatu musibah disebabkan perbuatan tangan mereka sendiri, kemudian mereka datang kepadamu sambil bersumpah: ‘Demi Allah, kami sekali-sekali tidak mengkehendaki selain penyelesaian yang baik dan perdamaian yang sempurna.” [an-Nisaa: 62]

Musibah-musibah disebabkan dosa-dosa yang mereka lakukan, termasuk menetapkan hukum dengan selain syariat Allah. Dan mereka sentiasa mengatakan niat mereka baik dan mahukan kebaikan, sedangkan mereka menipu!

FirmanNya lagi: “Mereka itu adalah orang-orang yang Allah mengetahui apa yang di dalam hati mereka. Kerana itu, berpalinglah kamu dari mereka dan berilah mereka maw’izhah, dan katakanlah kepada mereka perkataan yang berbekas pada jiwa mereka.” [an-Nisaa: 63]

Subhanallah! Inilah perintah Allah kepada Rasulullah yang mempunyai kuasa sebagai pemerintah negara Islam ketika itu. Allah jelaskan bahawa Allah tahu apa sebenarnya di dalam hati orang-orang munafik itu, dan telah menerangkan hakikat ini kepada RasulNya! Namun begitu, Allah tidak memerintahkan Rasulullah agar membunuh orang-orang munafik itu sedangkan mereka jelas melakukan dosa kufur! Malah, itulah yang ditegaskan oleh Allah dalam ayat 65!

Perintah Allah terhadap orang-orang munafik adalah seperti berikut:

1. Al-I’radh – Kata Shaikh as-Sa’di: “Iaitu, jangan peduli dengan mereka dan jangan bersemuka dengan mereka atas apa perbuatan dengan kesalahan yang mereka lakukan.”

2. Al-Maw’izhah – Kata Shaikh as-Sa’di: “Iaitu, terangkan kepada mereka hukum Allah sambil menggalakkan mereka tunduk kepada Allah dan menakutkan mereka sekiranya mereka meninggalkannya (hukum Allah).”

3. Al-Qawl al-Baligh – Kata Shaikh as-Sa’di : “Iaitu, nasihatilah mereka secara rahsia, antara kamu dan mereka, kerana ianya lebih layak untuk berjaya mencapai maksud, dan perlebihkan dalam membentak dan mencegah mereka daripada keadaan mereka itu. Ayat ini adalah dalil bahawa pelaku maksiat, sekiranya dibiar (tanpa hukuman) maka dia dinasihat secara rahsia, dan dilebihkan dalam memberikan pengajaran (maw’izhah) dengan cara yang dirasakan akan mencapai maksud.”

FirmanNya lagi: “Dan Kami tidak mengutus seseorang rasul, melainkan untuk ditaati dengan izin Allah. Sesungguhnya, jikalau mereka ketika menzalimi diri-diri mereka datang kepadamu, lalu memohon ampun kepada Allah, dan Rasulpun memohonkan ampun untuk mereka, tentulah mereka mendapati Allah Maha Penerima Taubat lagi Maha Penyayang.” [an-Nisaa: 64]

Allah tetap akan mengampuni sesiapa yang bertaubat, dan memperbaiki dirinya, walaupun seorang munafik! Manakala memohon ampun kepada Rasul adalah khusus di zamannya, dan setelah kewafatannya, taubat terus kepada Allah!

FirmanNya lagi: “Maka demi Tuhanmu, mereka (pada hakikatnya) tidak beriman hingga mereka menjadikan kamu hakim dalam perkara yang mereka perselisihkan, kemudian mereka tidak merasa keberatan dalam hati mereka terhadap keputusan yang kamu berikan, dan mereka menerima dengan sepenuhnya.” [an-Nisaa: 65]

Ayat ini menguatkan lagi tentang pentingnya kembali kepada Allah dan RasulNya, sebagai dasar yang sangat penting di dalam pemerintahan Islam dan dalam semua perkara secara umum!

Sepertimana pemerintah mesti adil dan menetapkan hukum dengan syariat Islam, rakyat-rakyat juga mesti adil dan bertindak menurut ketetapan dalam syariat Islam. Dan, dalam konteks menghadapi pemerintah yang tidak menetapkan hukum sepenuhnya dengan al-Quran dan Sunnah, kita sebagai rakyat mesti berlaku adil terhadap pemerintah, patuh dan taat dalam perkara-perkara maaruf, dan tidak menurut dalam perkara-perkara maksiat, sambil memberi nasihat dan pengajaran kepada pemerintah secara rahsia dan dengan cara yang dirasakan akan mencapai maksud!

Soalan: Bukankah ayat-ayat di atas menerangkan sikap nabi sebagai pemerintah kepada rakyat, dan bukan sebaliknya?

Walaupun Rasulullah yang berkuasa sebagai pemerintah, dan mempunyai ilmu yang yakin tentang perihal orang-orang munafik yang kufur setelah diberitahu oleh Allah melalui wahyu, tetap juga Allah perintahkan nabi agar menasihati mereka secara rahsia dan dengan cara yang terbaik untuk mencapai maksud, iaitu agar mereka kembali ke jalan Allah dan RasulNya.

Oleh itu, sekiranya keadaan adalah sebaliknya iaitu rakyat berhadapan dengan pemerintah yang zalim, maka lebih-lebih lagi perintah di atas layak digunakan oleh rakyat kepada pemerintah menurut kemampuan kerana rakyat tidak memiliki kuasa seperti seorang pemerintah! Sedangkan kebenaran mesti disampaikan kepada yang menzalimi! Maka rakyat perlu patuh selaginya arahan bukan sesuatu maksiat, dan dalam masa yang sama, rakyat perlu mencari jalan untuk menasihati pemerintah dengan cara yang terbaik seperti yang diperintahkan di dalam ayat-ayat di atas.

Shaikh Al-Albani juga setuju dengan pandangan seumpama ini, seperti dalam jawapannya kepada Shaikh Abul-Hasan al-Ma’ribi tentang kefahaman ayat-ayat di atas.

Ini juga cocok dengan hadith yang diriwayatkan oleh ‘Iyadh bin Ghunm: Rasulullah (SAW) bersabda: “Sesiapa yang mahu menasihati seorang yang berkuasa, maka janganlah dizahirkannya, tetapi peganglah tangannya dan asingkan diri bersamanya (ketika menasihatinya). Sekiranya dia menerima daripadanya maka itulah (maksud yang tercapai), dan sekiranya tidak, dia telah menunaikan tanggungjawabnya.” [Ahmad (3/403) dan Ibn Abi ‘Asim (2/521) dengan sanad yang sahih]

Dan ini juga sesuai dengan kefahaman sahabat, seperti yang diriwayatkan tentang Usama bin Zaid ketika berlakunya fitnah di zaman Uthman (RA). Ketika itu ada yang berkata kepada Usama: “Engkau tidak nasihat ke kepada Uthman?” Jawab Usama (RA): “Kamu ingat aku nak nasihat dia sambil memperdengarkannya kepada kamu? Sesungguhnya, aku menasihati dia antara aku dan dia, tanpa aku membuka keadaan yang aku tidak suka menjadi orang pertama yang membukanya!” [Bukhari, Muslim dan Ahmad (5/206)]

Dan memang fitnah itu terbuka dan berlaku juga setelah ada yang mengingkari Uthman secara nyata! Dan kesan fitnah tersebut berterusan sehinggalah ke zaman sekarang!

Dan janganlah pula kita menyumbang kepada kekusutan umat Islam di dalam hal ini dengan melampaui batas-batas syariat Islam, atas nama menegakkan Islam.

Semoga Allah memberikan kepada kita semua Taufiq dan Hidayah kepada kefahaman betul dalam agama Allah.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Menyambut Ramadan

Bagaimana kita menyambut kedatangan Ramadan? Firman Allah ta'ala:

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ

"Bulan Ramadan adalah bulan yang diturunkan di dalamnya al-Quran sebagai petunjuk bagi manusia dan penjelasan-penjelasan mengenai petunjuk itu dan pembeza (antara kebenaran dan kebatilan)..."
[al-Baqarah: 185]

Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala telah mengurniakan banyak kelebihan dan keistimewaan di dalam bulan Ramadan, berbanding dengan bulan-bulan yang lain. Antaranya:
1. Bau mulut orang yang berpuasa itu lebih harum di sisi Allah daripada bau kasturi
2. Para Malaikat memohon keampunan bagi orang yang berpuasa sehinggalah dia berbuka.
3. Syaitan-syaitan dibelenggu.
4. Pintu-pintu syurga dibuka dan pintu-pintu neraka ditutup.
5. Terdapatnya malam Lailatul-qadar di mana kebaikannya melebihi daripada seribu bulan. Betapa rugi sekali sesiapa yang mensia-siakannya.
6. Allah mengampunkan orang yang berpuasa pada akhir malam bulan Ramadan.
7. Allah melepaskan dari azab api neraka pada setiap malam di bulan Ramadan.

Inilah kelebihan dan keistimewaan bulan Ramadan, merupakan kurniaan yang amat besar dari Allah! Tetapi... bagaimanakah kita menyambutnya?? Adakah ianya disambut dengan ucapan Selamat Berpuasa, atau Ramadan Mubarak sahaja sedangkan tiada perubahan langsung pada diri kita? Atau dengan menghabiskan masa sia-sia sepanjang malam? Atau merasa kesal dengan kedatangannya kerana dianggap menyusahkan?

Semoga Allah melindungi kita semua daripada segala keadaan yang sedemikan.

Sambutlah kedatangan bulan Ramadan dengan Taubat Nasuha. Sambutlah dengan keazaman yang kuat untuk memanfaatkan segala kesempatan untuk melakukan amalan baik dan memohon kepada Allah agar menolong kita menunaikan segala macam ibadat dengan sempurna.

Nasihat saya:
Betulkan niat! Ramadan bukan masa untuk kita menunjuk kepada orang amalan kita, tetapi ianya masa untuk memperbaiki diri kita, amalan kita, sikap kita, rutin kita untuk menempah tempat yang jauh lebih baik di Akhirat nanti, kehidupan yang tiada putusnya! Apakah dunia jika dibandingkan dengan kehidupan akhirat di Syurga yang penuh kenikmatan!?

بَلْ تُؤْثِرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى

"Tetapi kamu memilih kehidupan dunia, sedangkan kehidupan akhirat adalah lebih baik dan lebih kekal!"
[al-A'la:15-16]